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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Basak, T .; Aravind, G .; Roy, S .; Balakrishnan, A.R.;

    Heat recovery from hot fluids in material processing industries is important for environmental and thermal management. Present work involves numerical visualization of heat flow in entrapped cavities filled with hot materials. The concept of heatline is used to visualize the heat energy trajectory. The system involves entrapped triangular cavities filled with hot fluid (Pr=. 0.015, 0.026, 0.7 and 1000). At low Rayleigh number (Ra), it is found that the heatlines are smooth and perfectly normal to the isotherms indicating the dominance of conduction for both the triangles. As Ra increases, flow slowly becomes convection dominant. Multiple heat flow circulations with high intensity are formed within the lower triangular domain especially for low Pr numbers, whereas, less intense convective heat flow circulations are observed for the upper triangle. Multiple circulations are absent for both the triangular domains involving fluids with higher Pr numbers. It is observed that the heat transfer rates are monotonic for the upper triangle whereas a few local maxima in heat transfer rates occur for smaller Pr within lower triangular domain. Overall, fluid with any Pr may be useful for enhanced heat transfer within the upper triangle but fluid with high Pr may be preferred for the lower triangle. � 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IndraStra Globalarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    IndraStra Global
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: IndraStra Global
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IndraStra Globalarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      IndraStra Global
      Article . 2010
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ying, Teng; Yuanyuan, Shen; Yongming, Luo; Xianghui, Sun; +4 Authors

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation is emerging as one of the most effective means by which plants and their associated rhizosphere microbes degrade organic contaminants in soils. A pot study was conducted to examine the effects of inoculation with Rhizobium meliloti on phytoremediation by alfalfa grown for 90 days in an agricultural soil contaminated with weathered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Planting with uninoculated alfalfa (P) and alfalfa inoculated with R. meliloti (PR) significantly lowered the initial soil PAH concentrations by 37.2 and 51.4% respectively compared with unplanted control soil. Inoculation with R. meliloti significantly increased the counts of culturable PAH-degrading bacteria, soil microbial activity and the carbon utilization ability of the soil microbial community. The results suggest that the symbiotic association between alfalfa and Rhizobium can stimulate the rhizosphere microflora to degrade PAHs and its application may be a promising bioremediation strategy for aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Hazardous...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Hazardous Materials
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Hazardous...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Hazardous Materials
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hannu Huuki; Santtu Karhinen; Herman Böök; Anders V. Lindfors; +2 Authors

    Highlights • Combines dynamic optimization and numerical weather prediction (NWP). • Annual solar PV forecast error cost for the 1 MWp plant is 830€. • Solar PV generation imbalances reduced by 10% with demand side management. • Average and marginal benefits per household decrease with increasing network size. Intermittent renewable energy generation, which is determined by weather conditions, is increasing in power markets. The efficient integration of these energy sources calls for flexible participants in smart power grids. It has been acknowledged that a large, underutilized, flexible resource lies on the consumer side of electricity generation. Despite the recently increasing interest in demand flexibility, there is a gap in the literature concerning the incentives for consumers to offer their flexible energy to power markets. In this paper, we examine a virtual power plant concept, which simultaneously optimizes the response of controllable electric hot water heaters to solar power forecast error imbalances. Uncertainty is included in the optimization in terms of solar power day-ahead forecast errors and balancing power market conditions. We show that including solar power imbalance minimization in the target function changes the optimal hot water heating profile such that more electricity is used during the daytime. The virtual power plant operation decreases solar power imbalances by 5–10% and benefits the participating households by 4.0–7.5 € in extra savings annually. The results of this study indicate that with the number of participating households, while total profits increase, marginal revenues decrease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Energy Storage
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Energy Storage
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ana, Domi; Estelle, Barbier; Louise, Adermark; Esi, Domi;

    Abstract Aims Despite a general decline in tobacco use in the last decades, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains substantial (45–50%). Importantly, the co-use of both substances potentiates the adverse effects, making it a significant public health problem. Substantial evidence suggests that AUD and Tobacco use disorder (TUD) may share common mechanisms. Targeting these mechanisms may therefore provide more effective therapy. Numerous studies describe a potential role of the endogenous opioid system in both AUD and TUD. Reviewing this literature, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of molecules that target the opioid system as promising therapeutic interventions for treating alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Methods We provide a synthesis of the current epidemiological knowledge of alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. We evaluate clinical and preclinical research that focuses on the regulation of the endogenous opioid system in alcohol, nicotine, and their interactions. Results The epidemiological data confirm that smoking stimulates heavy drinking and facilitates alcohol craving. Pharmacological findings suggest that treatments that are efficacious in the dual addiction provide a beneficial treatment outcome in comorbid AUD and TUD. In this regard, MOP, DOP and NOP-receptor antagonists show promising results, while the findings prompt caution when considering KOP-receptor antagonists as a treatment option in alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Conclusions Existing literature suggests a role of the opioid system in sustaining the high comorbidity rates of AUD and TUD. Molecules targeting opioid receptors may therefore represent promising therapeutic interventions in ‘heavy drinking smokers.’

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Alcohol and Alcoholi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Alcohol and Alcoholism
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Alcohol and Alcoholi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Alcohol and Alcoholism
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gannon, William J. F.; Jones, Daniel R.; Dunnill, Charles W.;

    The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating&rsquo s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Processesarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Processesarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Doornewaard, G.J.; de Haan, M.H.A.;

    Door een efficiënte bedrijfsvoering scoort Koeien & Kansen-deelnemer Adrian Houbraken economisch bovengemiddeld goed. Hij bewijst dat lage mineralenverliezen naar het milieu (door een hoge benutting) goed samengaan met economie. Verdere verbetering van de efficiëntie lijkt vooral mogelijk bij de voerproductie.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2014
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      Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2014
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    Authors: Hauke T.J. Henke; Francesco Gardumi; Olavur Ellefsen; Marita Lítlá; +2 Authors

    Abstract Background Article 12 of the Paris Agreement summons the signing parties to corporate in improving the education of their citizens on climate change and related matters. The article thereby acknowledges the importance of citizens support and understanding of climate change and needed measures to fight climate change. This paper aims to contribute to the goal of informing on the implications of climate change related policy on the power sector in Europe and hence all European citizens by presenting a serious game in which the player can explore how key policy decisions affect capacity mix, investment needs and electricity costs.Results The game is based on more than 1700 scenarios run through an open-source and accessible, yet technologically detailed myopic energy system optimisation model for the electricity supply in the EU27 + 3. The game allows the user to take the role of a decision maker and make decisions in 2020, 2030 and 2040 regarding the usage of CCS, biomass imports, cross-border electricity transmission and the pace of emission reductions. The user is then presented with economic, social, and environmental impacts of these choices. These impacts are for example measured and illustrated in the development of CO2 emissions per capita, levelised cost of electricity, and investment need per citizen.Conclusion The Power Decisions Game provides a first of its kind open-source infrastructure that allows non-modellers to explore the impact of key decisions and preferences on the design of the future European power system. It furthermore, provides insights on the consequences of short-sighted decision making. The game can be used to facilitate policy-science discussions.

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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
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    Authors: Kritika Kothari; Srinivasulu Ale; James P. Bordovsky; Dana O. Porter; +2 Authors

    Abstract Adaptation measures are required to enhance climate change resilience of agricultural systems and reduce risks associated with climate change at both regional and global scales. The Texas High Plains is a semi-arid region that faces major challenges from climate change risks and dwindling groundwater supply from the exhaustible Ogallala Aquifer for sustaining irrigated agriculture. The overall goal of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on yield and water use of grain sorghum and identify optimum climate change adaptation strategies for three study sites in the Texas High Plains. Future climate data projected by nine Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gas emissions (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input for the DSSAT CSM-CERES-Sorghum model. The climate change adaptation strategies were designed by modifying crop genotype parameters to incorporate drought tolerance, heat tolerance, high yield potential, and long maturity traits. Irrigated and dryland grain sorghum yield and irrigation water use were projected to decrease at varying percentages at the study sites in the future. On an average (of 9 GCMs), irrigated grain sorghum yield is expected to decrease by 5–13 % and 16–27 % by mid-century (2036–2065) and late-century (2066–2095), respectively under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline (1976–2005). The irrigation water use is expected to decrease by 7–9% and 14–16 % by the mid-century and late-century, respectively. Among the adaptation strategies, an ideotype with high yield potential trait (10 % higher partitioning to the panicle, radiation use efficiency, and relative leaf size than the reference cultivar) resulted in maximum grain sorghum yield gains in the future under both irrigated (6.9 %–17.1 %) and dryland (7.5 %–17.1 %) conditions, when compared to the reference cultivar. Enhancing drought tolerance by increasing root density at different soil depths also resulted in a significantly higher irrigated grain sorghum yield than the reference cultivar. A longer maturity cultivar will likely increase irrigation water use and, therefore, is not recommended for water limited conditions.

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    European Journal of Agronomy
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Journal of Agronomy
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Min, Changgi;

    This study investigates the effect of uncertainty characteristics of renewable energy resources on the flexibility of a power system. The more renewable energy resources introduced, the greater the imbalance between load and generation. Securing the flexibility of the system is becoming important to manage this situation. The degree of flexibility cannot be independent of the uncertainty of the power system. However, most existing studies on flexibility have not explicitly considered the effects of uncertainty characteristics. Therefore, this study proposes a method to quantitatively analyze the effect of uncertainty characteristics on power system flexibility. Here, the uncertainties of the power system indicate the net load forecast error, which can be represented as a probability distribution. Of the characteristics of the net load forecast error, skewness and kurtosis were considered. The net load forecast error was modeled with a Pearson distribution, which has been widely used to generate the probability density function with skewness and kurtosis. Scenarios for the forecast net load, skewness, and kurtosis were generated, and their effects on flexibility were evaluated. The simulation results for the scenarios based on a modified IEEE-RTS-96 revealed that skewness is more effective than kurtosis. The proposed method can help system operators to efficiently respond to changes in the uncertainty characteristics of renewable energy resources.

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    Applied Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Applied Sciences
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    Applied Sciences
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      Applied Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Applied Sciences
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      Applied Sciences
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    Authors: Caiping Xu; Chuanyu Jin; Jiaqi Liu; Kaixu Song; +2 Authors
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    Journal of Energy Storage
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Energy Storage
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    Authors: Basak, T .; Aravind, G .; Roy, S .; Balakrishnan, A.R.;

    Heat recovery from hot fluids in material processing industries is important for environmental and thermal management. Present work involves numerical visualization of heat flow in entrapped cavities filled with hot materials. The concept of heatline is used to visualize the heat energy trajectory. The system involves entrapped triangular cavities filled with hot fluid (Pr=. 0.015, 0.026, 0.7 and 1000). At low Rayleigh number (Ra), it is found that the heatlines are smooth and perfectly normal to the isotherms indicating the dominance of conduction for both the triangles. As Ra increases, flow slowly becomes convection dominant. Multiple heat flow circulations with high intensity are formed within the lower triangular domain especially for low Pr numbers, whereas, less intense convective heat flow circulations are observed for the upper triangle. Multiple circulations are absent for both the triangular domains involving fluids with higher Pr numbers. It is observed that the heat transfer rates are monotonic for the upper triangle whereas a few local maxima in heat transfer rates occur for smaller Pr within lower triangular domain. Overall, fluid with any Pr may be useful for enhanced heat transfer within the upper triangle but fluid with high Pr may be preferred for the lower triangle. � 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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    IndraStra Global
    Article . 2010
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    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
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    Authors: Ying, Teng; Yuanyuan, Shen; Yongming, Luo; Xianghui, Sun; +4 Authors

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation is emerging as one of the most effective means by which plants and their associated rhizosphere microbes degrade organic contaminants in soils. A pot study was conducted to examine the effects of inoculation with Rhizobium meliloti on phytoremediation by alfalfa grown for 90 days in an agricultural soil contaminated with weathered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Planting with uninoculated alfalfa (P) and alfalfa inoculated with R. meliloti (PR) significantly lowered the initial soil PAH concentrations by 37.2 and 51.4% respectively compared with unplanted control soil. Inoculation with R. meliloti significantly increased the counts of culturable PAH-degrading bacteria, soil microbial activity and the carbon utilization ability of the soil microbial community. The results suggest that the symbiotic association between alfalfa and Rhizobium can stimulate the rhizosphere microflora to degrade PAHs and its application may be a promising bioremediation strategy for aged PAH-contaminated soils.

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    Journal of Hazardous Materials
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      Journal of Hazardous Materials
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    Authors: Hannu Huuki; Santtu Karhinen; Herman Böök; Anders V. Lindfors; +2 Authors

    Highlights • Combines dynamic optimization and numerical weather prediction (NWP). • Annual solar PV forecast error cost for the 1 MWp plant is 830€. • Solar PV generation imbalances reduced by 10% with demand side management. • Average and marginal benefits per household decrease with increasing network size. Intermittent renewable energy generation, which is determined by weather conditions, is increasing in power markets. The efficient integration of these energy sources calls for flexible participants in smart power grids. It has been acknowledged that a large, underutilized, flexible resource lies on the consumer side of electricity generation. Despite the recently increasing interest in demand flexibility, there is a gap in the literature concerning the incentives for consumers to offer their flexible energy to power markets. In this paper, we examine a virtual power plant concept, which simultaneously optimizes the response of controllable electric hot water heaters to solar power forecast error imbalances. Uncertainty is included in the optimization in terms of solar power day-ahead forecast errors and balancing power market conditions. We show that including solar power imbalance minimization in the target function changes the optimal hot water heating profile such that more electricity is used during the daytime. The virtual power plant operation decreases solar power imbalances by 5–10% and benefits the participating households by 4.0–7.5 € in extra savings annually. The results of this study indicate that with the number of participating households, while total profits increase, marginal revenues decrease.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Energy Storage
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Energy Storage
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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    Authors: Ana, Domi; Estelle, Barbier; Louise, Adermark; Esi, Domi;

    Abstract Aims Despite a general decline in tobacco use in the last decades, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains substantial (45–50%). Importantly, the co-use of both substances potentiates the adverse effects, making it a significant public health problem. Substantial evidence suggests that AUD and Tobacco use disorder (TUD) may share common mechanisms. Targeting these mechanisms may therefore provide more effective therapy. Numerous studies describe a potential role of the endogenous opioid system in both AUD and TUD. Reviewing this literature, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of molecules that target the opioid system as promising therapeutic interventions for treating alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Methods We provide a synthesis of the current epidemiological knowledge of alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. We evaluate clinical and preclinical research that focuses on the regulation of the endogenous opioid system in alcohol, nicotine, and their interactions. Results The epidemiological data confirm that smoking stimulates heavy drinking and facilitates alcohol craving. Pharmacological findings suggest that treatments that are efficacious in the dual addiction provide a beneficial treatment outcome in comorbid AUD and TUD. In this regard, MOP, DOP and NOP-receptor antagonists show promising results, while the findings prompt caution when considering KOP-receptor antagonists as a treatment option in alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Conclusions Existing literature suggests a role of the opioid system in sustaining the high comorbidity rates of AUD and TUD. Molecules targeting opioid receptors may therefore represent promising therapeutic interventions in ‘heavy drinking smokers.’

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    Alcohol and Alcoholism
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao