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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Energy and Buildings
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Academica-e; Recolec...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Energy and Buildings
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy and Buildings
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Şahin Ören, Tuba;

    Turizm, ekonomik, sosyal, kültürel birçok yöne sahip olan bir endüstri olarak ifade edilmektedir. Özellikle son yıllarda sosyal ve ekonomik boyutunun ön plana çıkmasıyla birlikte uluslararası önemini de giderek arttırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Turizmin sosyal ve ekonomik boyutlarının önem kazanmasının en önemli sebeplerinden biri de küresel çapta düzenlenen spor etkinliklerinin olduğu görülmektedir. Turizm faaliyetleri; ekonomik, sosyokültürel ve çevresel açıdan destinasyonları olumlu veya olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Özellikle doğrudan etkilenen/etkileyen paydaşlar arasında merkezi/yerel yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları, işletmeler, yerel halk ve turistler yer almaktadır. Destinasyonların sürekliliğini ve dolayısıyla sürdürülebilirliğini sağlamak açısından söz konusu bu paydaşların beklentilerini belirlemek önemlidir. Beklentilerin belirlenmesi sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetlerinin ve pazarlama çabalarının doğru bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmesine katkı sağlayacaktır. Deniz-kum-güneş üçlemesinden faydalanamayan destinasyonlardaturizm faaliyetlerinin çeşitliliğiavantaj sağlamaktadır. Özellikle turizm faaliyetlerinin hava sporu turizmi gibi spesifik alanlara indirgenebiliyor olması bir çok destinasyonun turizm gelirlerinden pay almasını ve ülke ekonomisine katkıda bulunmasını sağlamaktadır. Hava sporu ile ilgili destinasyonların alan yazında çok fazla yer edinememiş olması, geçerli ölçekler üzerine yapılan araştırmaların kısıtlı olması destinasyon yönetim ve pazarlaması çabalarında eksik değerlendirmelere yol açtığı düşünülmektedir. Bu eksikliğin giderilmesi için paydaşlara (yerel halk, hava sporu turistleri) yönelik ölçeklerin geliştirilmesi ve destinasyonların sürdürülebilirliği (hava spor uzmanları, merkezi/yerel yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları, işletmeler) ile ilgili görüşlerin belirlenebilmesi önemli hale gelmiştir. Bu doğrultuda araştırmada, hava spor turizmi aracılığı ile sürdürülebilir destinasyon oluşturmada yerel halkın ve hava spor turistlerinin beklentilerinin belirlenebilmesini sağlayacak bir ölçek geliştirmek, hava spor uzmanları, yerel/merkezi yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları ve işletmelerin konuyla ilgili görüşleri doğrultusunda değerlendirmeler yaparak alan yazına, destinasyon yönetiminde ve pazarlamaçabalarında karar alıcılara ışık tutmak, katkı sağlamak amaçlanmaktadır.Bu bağlamda söz konusu çalışma nitel ve nicel araştırma yöntemleri temeline dayandırılarak tasarlanmıştır.Hava spor turistlerinin evreni oluşturduğu araştırmada 333 hava spor turistinden maksimum çeşitlilik ve kartopu örnekleme stratejileri kullanılarak veri seti oluşturulmuştur.Verileri toplamak amacıyla oluşturulan veri toplama aracında 33 önerme yer almaktadır. Veriler çevrimiçi anket uygulaması aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Uşak destinasyonunyaşayanların evreni oluşturduğu araştırmada basit rastlantısal örnekleme stratejisi kullanılarak 527 yerel halktan yüz yüze görüşme tekniği ile veriler elde edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak kullanılan anket formunda 38 önerme yer almaktadır.Hava sporu uzmanları, yerel/merkezi yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları ve işletmelerden maksimum örnekleme stratejisi ile yarı yapılandırılmışgörüşme formu kullanılarak veriler toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler ve alan yazın taramasından elde edilen bilgiler ışığında Uşak destinasyonuna ilişkin GZFT analizi yapılmıştır.Hava spor turistlerinin ve yerel halkın sürdürülebilir destinasyondan beklentilerini tespit edebilmek amacıyla elde edilen verilerin analizi, SPSS ve Lisrel analiz programları aracılığı ile yapılmıştır. Hava spor uzmanlarından, yerel/merkezi yönetimlerden, sivil toplum kuruluşlarındanve işletmelerden elde edilen veriler içerik analizi yöntemlerinden betimleyici ve sıklık analizi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda yerel halkın ekonomik, sosyokültürel ve çevresel açıdan destinasyondan beklentilerini ortaya koyabilecek ölçekler geliştirilmiştir.Uşak destinasyonu hava sporu turizmi için gerekli olan doğal güzelliklere sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Uşak destinasyonunda işlevsel bir turizm yönetim modeli bulunamamıştır. Doğal ve kültürel değerleri korumak ve bu değerleri turizm açısından daha işlevsel hale getirmek için destinasyon yönetim modeline ve stratejik pazarlama planına ihtiyaç olduğu görülmüştür. Tourism is expressed as an industry with many economic, social and cultural aspects. Especially in recent years it has been determined that the social and economic dimension has become the foreground and the international importance has been increasing gradually. One of the most important reasons for the importance of tourism's social and economic dimensions seems to be the sports events organized on a global scale. Tourism activities; economically, socio-cultural and environmental destinations in the positive or negative direction. Particularly, stakeholders directly affected / affected include central / local governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses, local residents and tourists. It is important to determine the expectations of these stakeholders in order to ensure the continuity and thus sustainability of the destinations. Determination of the expectations will contribute to the realization of sustainable tourism activities and marketing efforts correctly. When the diversity of tourism activities is evaluated, it is advantageous in destinations that cannot benefit from sea-sand-sun triple. Especially, tourism activities can be reduced to specific areas such as air sports tourism, so that many destinations have a share in tourism revenues and contribute to the economy of the country. Air sports related destinations are thought to have not acquired much space in the literature, and limited research on current scales is thought to lead to incomplete assessments in destination management and marketing efforts. In order to address this deficiency, it has become important to establish scales for stakeholders (local people, air sports tourists) and to be able to define views on the sustainability of destinations (air sports experts, central / local governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses).In this aim of research, the development of a scale that will enable the determination of the expectations of the local people and the air sports tourists in creating a sustainable destination through air sports tourism, air sports experts, local / central administrations, non-governmental organizations and enterprises make evaluations in the field, and to shed light on decision makers in marketing efforts.In this context, the study was designed based on qualitative and quantitative research methods. In the study, which is the population of air sports tourists, data set was created by using maximum diversity and snowball sampling strategies from 333 air sports tourists. There are 33 propositions in the data collection tool for collecting the data. The data were collected through an online survey application. In the study of the population of the Uşak destination, 527 local face-to-face interview techniques were obtained using a simple random sampling strategy. There are 38 propositions in the questionnaire which is used as data collection tool. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form with maximum sampling strategy from air sports specialists, local / central government, non-governmental organizations and businesses. The data obtained from the obtained data and field data were analyzed by SWOT analysis for Uşak destination.The analysis of the data obtained in order to identify the predictions of the sustainable destiny of the air sports tourists and the local people was made through the SPSS and Lisrel analysis programs. It has been analyzed using descriptive and frequency analysis of data content analysis methods obtained from air sports specialists, local / central administrations, non-governmental organizations and enterprises.As a result of the study, scales have been developed that will enable local people to set expectations for economic, sociocultural and environmental destruction. Uşak destination has been found to have the natural beauty required for air sports tourism. A functional tourism management model was not found in Uşak destination. It has been seen that there is a need for a destination management model and strategic marketing plan to protect natural and cultural values and to make these values more functional in terms of tourism. 158

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    Authors: Zea Beltrán, Jaki Alexander; Bernal Nieves, John Edison; Carvajal Sanabria, Diego Fernando;

    El presente proyecto tiene como propósito diseñar un biodigestor para generar biogás y abono orgánico a partir de desechos orgánicos, aplicable en las zonas agrarias del municipio y en las empresas del sector productivo que implementen esta alternativa dentro de su sistema de producción.

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    Authors: Mutaz B. Elbeh; Ahmad K. Sleiti;

    Abstract In this research study, the concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is reviewed for designing and optimizing a CSP tower plant for arid climate regions such as Qatar. A database for all CSP projects around the world is created, and a spreadsheet model for calculating the available solar irradiance is developed. Two software packages are used for analyzing and optimizing the entire solar thermal plant and its cost, SolarPILOT, and System Advisor Model (SAM). Both packages are validated using data from a recent power tower project. A thorough iterative optimization process was developed and applied to optimize the solar field parameters of a suggested CSP plant including tower optical height; heliostat structure width and height; number of heliostats; horizontal and vertical panels; receiver height and diameter; water consumption; cleaning schedule; maintenance; and total cost. The results confirmed the feasibility of a CSP plant on 0.45 km2 of a solar field area with 2736 heliostats that produce 8 MWe with 10 hours of thermal storage and hybrid steam condensing system. It has been found that the highest production of the plant is in July, which is 3 621 950 kWh and the highest excess of electrical energy is in March, which is 2 946 965 kWh.

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    Authors: Wei Qiao; R.G. Harley;

    As the number and size of wind farms continue to grow, many countries have established or are developing a set of specific requirements (i.e., grid codes) for operation and grid connection of wind farms. The objective of these grid codes is to ensure that wind farms do not adversely affect the power system operation with respect to security of supply, reliability and power quality. This paper reviews major grid code requirements for wind farms, and investigates various technologies developed by and solutions proposed by researchers and wind turbine manufactures in order to meet these requirements. In addition, some of the authors' work on these issues are discussed and demonstrated by simulation studies.

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    Authors: Hajabdollahi, Farzaneh; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour; Hajabdollahi, Zahra; Hamidi, Yaser;

    Abstract In this study, one dimensional heat transfer in a pin fin is modeled and optimized. We used Bezier curves to determine the best geometry of the fin. The model equations are solved to analyze the heat transfer. Total heat transfer rate and fin efficiency factor are considered as two objective functions and multi-objective optimization carried out to maximize heat transfer rate and fin efficiency simultaneously. Fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to determine a set of multiple optimum solutions, called ‘Pareto optimal solutions. The optimized results are presented with Pareto front which demonstrate conflict between two objective functions in the optimized point, both energy conservation and thermal analysis are carried out to verify the solution method and the results shows good precision.

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    Applied Mathematical Modelling
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Applied Mathematical Modelling
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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    Authors: CAROLINE PICHARILLO; VICTOR EDUARDO LIMA RANIERI;

    Abstract The economic tool of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has been considered as an alternative for the conservation of the biodiversity and ecosystem services in private lands. To guide decision makers in implementing PES schemes, this paper aimed to identify in the scientific literature the important elements to prioritize areas in the implementation of PES-biodiversity schemes. It is claimed that the elements extracted from PES-biodiversity schemes must be used as a reference to guide the implementation of other PES schemes based on the recovery and maintenance of natural areas (e.g. water, carbon, environmental aesthetics conditions). Thus, the sustainability of PES schemes can be guaranteed over time. Resumen El instrumento económico de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) es una alternativa para la conservación de la biodiversidad y de los servicios ecosistémicos en terrenos privados. Con la finalidad de orientar a tomadores de decisión, en el proceso de implementación de esquemas de PSA, este trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar en la literatura científica elementos importantes para la priorización de áreas en la implementación de esquemas de PSA-biodiversidad. La condicionante de partida es, que los elementos extraídos de los esquemas de PSA-biodiversidad tienen que ser utilizados como referencia para orientar la implantación de otro esquema de PSA basados en la recuperación y manutención de las áreas naturales (p.e. agua, carbón, belleza escénica). De esta forma la sustentabilidad de los esquemas de PSA pueden garantizarse a lo largo del tiempo. Resumo O instrumento econômico de Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais (PSA) tem sido considerado uma alternativa para a conservação da biodiversidade e dos serviços ecossistêmicos em terras privadas. Com a finalidade de orientar os tomadores de decisão no processo de implantação de esquemas de PSA, este artigo teve por objetivo identificar na literatura científica os elementos importantes para se priorizar áreas para a implantação de esquemas de PSA-biodiversidade. Parte-se do argumento de que os elementos extraídos dos esquemas de PSA-biodiversidade devem ser utilizados como referência para orientar a implantação de outros esquemas de PSA baseados na recuperação e manutenção de áreas naturais (e.g. água, carbono, beleza cênica). Dessa forma, a sustentabilidade dos esquemas de PSA poderá ser garantida ao longo do tempo.

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    Ambiente & Sociedade
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    Authors: Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; +1 Authors

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

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    Authors: Gaweł Sołowski;

    Influences of following anaerobic digestion (AD) parameters like microaeration, pH, and VSS (Volatile Suspended Solid) using sour cabbage as substrate was checked in the publication. Results of fermentation of sour cabbage under the condition of small oxygen addition presented in this research can be classified as dark fermentation (DF—a special case of AD) or hydrogenotrophic anaerobic digestion. The investigations were carried out for two concentrations of 5 g VSS/L and 10 g VSS/L of sour cabbage at pH 6.0. The oxygen flow rates (OFR) for 5 g VSS/L were in the range of 0.53 to 3.3 mL/h for obtaining 2% to 8% of oxygen. At low pH and microaeration, ethylene production was observed at a level below 0.05% in biogas. The highest volume of hydrogen for 5 g VSS/L was obtained for flow rate 0.58 O2 mL/h, giving hydrogen concentration in biogas in the range of 0 to 20%. For VSS 5 g/L and oxygen flow rate 0.58 mL/h; 0.021 L of hydrogen was produced per gram of VSS. At VSS 10 g/L and oxygen flow rate 1.4 mL/h at pH 6.0, 0.03 L of hydrogen was generated per gram. Microaeration from 0.58 mL/h to 0.87 mL/h was propitious for hydrogen production at 5 g VSS/L of sour cabbage and 1.4 mL/h for 10 g VSS/L. Another relevant factor is the volatile suspended solid factor of a substrate. Optimal hydrogen production from sour cabbage was for VSS 89.32%.

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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

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    Energy and Buildings
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    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energy and Buildings
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    Authors: Şahin Ören, Tuba;

    Turizm, ekonomik, sosyal, kültürel birçok yöne sahip olan bir endüstri olarak ifade edilmektedir. Özellikle son yıllarda sosyal ve ekonomik boyutunun ön plana çıkmasıyla birlikte uluslararası önemini de giderek arttırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Turizmin sosyal ve ekonomik boyutlarının önem kazanmasının en önemli sebeplerinden biri de küresel çapta düzenlenen spor etkinliklerinin olduğu görülmektedir. Turizm faaliyetleri; ekonomik, sosyokültürel ve çevresel açıdan destinasyonları olumlu veya olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Özellikle doğrudan etkilenen/etkileyen paydaşlar arasında merkezi/yerel yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları, işletmeler, yerel halk ve turistler yer almaktadır. Destinasyonların sürekliliğini ve dolayısıyla sürdürülebilirliğini sağlamak açısından söz konusu bu paydaşların beklentilerini belirlemek önemlidir. Beklentilerin belirlenmesi sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetlerinin ve pazarlama çabalarının doğru bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmesine katkı sağlayacaktır. Deniz-kum-güneş üçlemesinden faydalanamayan destinasyonlardaturizm faaliyetlerinin çeşitliliğiavantaj sağlamaktadır. Özellikle turizm faaliyetlerinin hava sporu turizmi gibi spesifik alanlara indirgenebiliyor olması bir çok destinasyonun turizm gelirlerinden pay almasını ve ülke ekonomisine katkıda bulunmasını sağlamaktadır. Hava sporu ile ilgili destinasyonların alan yazında çok fazla yer edinememiş olması, geçerli ölçekler üzerine yapılan araştırmaların kısıtlı olması destinasyon yönetim ve pazarlaması çabalarında eksik değerlendirmelere yol açtığı düşünülmektedir. Bu eksikliğin giderilmesi için paydaşlara (yerel halk, hava sporu turistleri) yönelik ölçeklerin geliştirilmesi ve destinasyonların sürdürülebilirliği (hava spor uzmanları, merkezi/yerel yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları, işletmeler) ile ilgili görüşlerin belirlenebilmesi önemli hale gelmiştir. Bu doğrultuda araştırmada, hava spor turizmi aracılığı ile sürdürülebilir destinasyon oluşturmada yerel halkın ve hava spor turistlerinin beklentilerinin belirlenebilmesini sağlayacak bir ölçek geliştirmek, hava spor uzmanları, yerel/merkezi yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları ve işletmelerin konuyla ilgili görüşleri doğrultusunda değerlendirmeler yaparak alan yazına, destinasyon yönetiminde ve pazarlamaçabalarında karar alıcılara ışık tutmak, katkı sağlamak amaçlanmaktadır.Bu bağlamda söz konusu çalışma nitel ve nicel araştırma yöntemleri temeline dayandırılarak tasarlanmıştır.Hava spor turistlerinin evreni oluşturduğu araştırmada 333 hava spor turistinden maksimum çeşitlilik ve kartopu örnekleme stratejileri kullanılarak veri seti oluşturulmuştur.Verileri toplamak amacıyla oluşturulan veri toplama aracında 33 önerme yer almaktadır. Veriler çevrimiçi anket uygulaması aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Uşak destinasyonunyaşayanların evreni oluşturduğu araştırmada basit rastlantısal örnekleme stratejisi kullanılarak 527 yerel halktan yüz yüze görüşme tekniği ile veriler elde edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak kullanılan anket formunda 38 önerme yer almaktadır.Hava sporu uzmanları, yerel/merkezi yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları ve işletmelerden maksimum örnekleme stratejisi ile yarı yapılandırılmışgörüşme formu kullanılarak veriler toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler ve alan yazın taramasından elde edilen bilgiler ışığında Uşak destinasyonuna ilişkin GZFT analizi yapılmıştır.Hava spor turistlerinin ve yerel halkın sürdürülebilir destinasyondan beklentilerini tespit edebilmek amacıyla elde edilen verilerin analizi, SPSS ve Lisrel analiz programları aracılığı ile yapılmıştır. Hava spor uzmanlarından, yerel/merkezi yönetimlerden, sivil toplum kuruluşlarındanve işletmelerden elde edilen veriler içerik analizi yöntemlerinden betimleyici ve sıklık analizi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda yerel halkın ekonomik, sosyokültürel ve çevresel açıdan destinasyondan beklentilerini ortaya koyabilecek ölçekler geliştirilmiştir.Uşak destinasyonu hava sporu turizmi için gerekli olan doğal güzelliklere sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Uşak destinasyonunda işlevsel bir turizm yönetim modeli bulunamamıştır. Doğal ve kültürel değerleri korumak ve bu değerleri turizm açısından daha işlevsel hale getirmek için destinasyon yönetim modeline ve stratejik pazarlama planına ihtiyaç olduğu görülmüştür. Tourism is expressed as an industry with many economic, social and cultural aspects. Especially in recent years it has been determined that the social and economic dimension has become the foreground and the international importance has been increasing gradually. One of the most important reasons for the importance of tourism's social and economic dimensions seems to be the sports events organized on a global scale. Tourism activities; economically, socio-cultural and environmental destinations in the positive or negative direction. Particularly, stakeholders directly affected / affected include central / local governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses, local residents and tourists. It is important to determine the expectations of these stakeholders in order to ensure the continuity and thus sustainability of the destinations. Determination of the expectations will contribute to the realization of sustainable tourism activities and marketing efforts correctly. When the diversity of tourism activities is evaluated, it is advantageous in destinations that cannot benefit from sea-sand-sun triple. Especially, tourism activities can be reduced to specific areas such as air sports tourism, so that many destinations have a share in tourism revenues and contribute to the economy of the country. Air sports related destinations are thought to have not acquired much space in the literature, and limited research on current scales is thought to lead to incomplete assessments in destination management and marketing efforts. In order to address this deficiency, it has become important to establish scales for stakeholders (local people, air sports tourists) and to be able to define views on the sustainability of destinations (air sports experts, central / local governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses).In this aim of research, the development of a scale that will enable the determination of the expectations of the local people and the air sports tourists in creating a sustainable destination through air sports tourism, air sports experts, local / central administrations, non-governmental organizations and enterprises make evaluations in the field, and to shed light on decision makers in marketing efforts.In this context, the study was designed based on qualitative and quantitative research methods. In the study, which is the population of air sports tourists, data set was created by using maximum diversity and snowball sampling strategies from 333 air sports tourists. There are 33 propositions in the data collection tool for collecting the data. The data were collected through an online survey application. In the study of the population of the Uşak destination, 527 local face-to-face interview techniques were obtained using a simple random sampling strategy. There are 38 propositions in the questionnaire which is used as data collection tool. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form with maximum sampling strategy from air sports specialists, local / central government, non-governmental organizations and businesses. The data obtained from the obtained data and field data were analyzed by SWOT analysis for Uşak destination.The analysis of the data obtained in order to identify the predictions of the sustainable destiny of the air sports tourists and the local people was made through the SPSS and Lisrel analysis programs. It has been analyzed using descriptive and frequency analysis of data content analysis methods obtained from air sports specialists, local / central administrations, non-governmental organizations and enterprises.As a result of the study, scales have been developed that will enable local people to set expectations for economic, sociocultural and environmental destruction. Uşak destination has been found to have the natural beauty required for air sports tourism. A functional tourism management model was not found in Uşak destination. It has been seen that there is a need for a destination management model and strategic marketing plan to protect natural and cultural values and to make these values more functional in terms of tourism. 158

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    Authors: Zea Beltrán, Jaki Alexander; Bernal Nieves, John Edison; Carvajal Sanabria, Diego Fernando;

    El presente proyecto tiene como propósito diseñar un biodigestor para generar biogás y abono orgánico a partir de desechos orgánicos, aplicable en las zonas agrarias del municipio y en las empresas del sector productivo que implementen esta alternativa dentro de su sistema de producción.

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    Authors: Mutaz B. Elbeh; Ahmad K. Sleiti;

    Abstract In this research study, the concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is reviewed for designing and optimizing a CSP tower plant for arid climate regions such as Qatar. A database for all CSP projects around the world is created, and a spreadsheet model for calculating the available solar irradiance is developed. Two software packages are used for analyzing and optimizing the entire solar thermal plant and its cost, SolarPILOT, and System Advisor Model (SAM). Both packages are validated using data from a recent power tower project. A thorough iterative optimization process was developed and applied to optimize the solar field parameters of a suggested CSP plant including tower optical height; heliostat structure width and height; number of heliostats; horizontal and vertical panels; receiver height and diameter; water consumption; cleaning schedule; maintenance; and total cost. The results confirmed the feasibility of a CSP plant on 0.45 km2 of a solar field area with 2736 heliostats that produce 8 MWe with 10 hours of thermal storage and hybrid steam condensing system. It has been found that the highest production of the plant is in July, which is 3 621 950 kWh and the highest excess of electrical energy is in March, which is 2 946 965 kWh.

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    Authors: Wei Qiao; R.G. Harley;