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  • Authors: M. Kühn; W.A.A.M. Bierbooms; G.J.W. van Bussel; Tim Cockerill; +6 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marcello Graziano; Maurizio Fiaschetti; Carol Atkinson-Palombo;

    Abstract Building upon recent literature, we combine a novel spatiotemporal variable with spatial methods to investigate and quantify the influence of the built environment and jurisdictional boundaries on spatial peer-effects (SPEs) in inner-city areas. We focus on the Hartford Capital region, using detailed data at block-group and PV system levels for the years 2005-2013. This region is part of a state, Connecticut, actively engaged in supporting PV system at residential level. Adoption of PV systems varies substantially, and state policies are mediated by town-level regulations. We initially employ typology analysis to investigate the heterogeneity of the block groups with higher adoption rates. We then use panel FE and spatial estimations to determine the existence of spill-overs of SPEs beyond town boundaries. Our estimations suggest that new PV systems have a more limited spatiotemporal influence in inner-cities. We identify spatial spill-overs from neighboring block groups even between towns, suggesting that SPEs transcend municipal barriers. We do not find significant results for built-environment, although we identify several data limitations. Our results suggest that centralized, non-voluntary support policies may have larger effects if implemented beyond town-level, and that SPEs change their determination power depending on the underlying built environment.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy Research & Social Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Energy Research & So...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy Research & Social Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gannon, William J. F.; Jones, Daniel R.; Dunnill, Charles W.;

    The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating&rsquo s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Imran Shabbir; Mojtaba Mirzaeian;

    In this paper, feasibility analysis to implement different cogeneration systems using agricultural waste (rice husk) along with natural gas as an alternative source of energy for energy saving and cost optimization in a chemical plant is carried out. The authors believe that such feasibility studies by employing rice husk and natural gas in a cycle to improve the energy efficiency and carbon emission savings of chemical plant are limited and therefore this research is timely not only because of the current interest in high-performance cogeneration options but also from the scientific research point of view. The cogeneration technologies implemented are a gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cycle and are evaluated from the energetic and economic point of view to propose a best suitable technology. These technologies are evaluated on the basis of energy utilization factor, simple pay-back period and Annualized life cycle cost (ALCC). The results show that all studied cogeneration options running on thermal match mode have fully satisfied the thermal demand of a chemical plant and in most cases, 70% electric demand, where combined cycle has the highest energy utilization factor and the least Annualized life cycle cost with the lowest payback period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/icsae....
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/icsae....
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luo, Zhenhua; Zhu, Dibin; Shi, Jujie; Beeby, Steve; +3 Authors

    Cellular polypropylene (PP) ferroelectret is a thin and flexible cellular polymer foam that generates electrical power under mechanical force. This work investigates single and multilayer ferroelectret PP foams and their potential to supply energy for human-body-worn sensors. Human foot-fall is emulated using an electrodynamic instrument, allowing applied compressive force and momentum to be correlated with energy output. Peak power, output pulse duration, and energy per strike is derived experimentally as a function of force and momentum, and shown to be a strong function of external load resistance, thus providing a clear maximum energy point. The possibility of increasing pulse time and reducing voltage to CMOS compatible levels at some expense of peak power is shown. To further increase the output power, multilayer ferroelectret is presented. The synchronized power generation of each layer is studied and illustrated using simulation, and results are supported by experiments. Finally, the energy output of single-layer and multi-layer ferroelectrets are compared by charging a capacitor via a rectifier. A ten-layer ferroelectret is shown to have charging ability 29.1 times better than that of the single-layer ferroelectret. It demonstrates energy output that is capable of powering the start-up and transmission of a typical low-power wireless sensor chipset.

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    e-Prints Soton
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      e-Prints Soton
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IEEE Copyright
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fernando Elias; Joice Ferreira; Gareth D. Lennox; Erika Berenguer; +9 Authors

    AbstractTropical forests hold 30% of Earth’s terrestrial carbon and at least 60% of its terrestrial biodiversity, but forest loss and degradation are jeopardizing these ecosystems. Although the regrowth of secondary forests has the potential to offset some of the losses of carbon and biodiversity, it remains unclear if secondary regeneration will be affected by climate changes such as higher temperatures and more frequent extreme droughts. We used a data set of 10 repeated forest inventories spanning two decades (1999–2017) to investigate carbon and tree species recovery and how climate and landscape context influence carbon dynamics in an older secondary forest located in one of the oldest post‐Columbian agricultural frontiers in the Brazilian Amazon. Carbon accumulation averaged 1.08 Mg·ha−1·yr−1, and species richness was effectively constant over the studied period. Moreover, we provide evidence that secondary forests are vulnerable to drought stress: Carbon balance and growth rates were lower in drier periods. This contrasts with drought responses in primary forests, where changes in carbon dynamics are driven by increased stem mortality. These results highlight an important climate change–vegetation feedback, whereby the increasing dry‐season lengths being observed across parts of Amazonia may reduce the effectiveness of secondary forests in sequestering carbon and mitigating climate change. In addition, the current rate of forest regrowth in this region was low compared with previous pan‐tropical and Amazonian assessments—our secondary forests reached just 41.1% of the average carbon and 56% of the tree diversity in the nearest primary forests—suggesting that these areas are unlikely to return to their original levels on politically meaningful time scales.

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    Ecology; Lancaster EPrints
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Ecology
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    Ecology
    Article . 2019
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      Ecology; Lancaster EPrints
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Ecology
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      Ecology
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Prateek Saxena; Emanuele Pagone; Konstantinos Salonitis; Mark Jolly;

    Abstract Additive Manufacturing has significantly developed over the years and is widely used in most industrial applications. Rapid Tooling refers to manufacturing the tools (moulds and dies) using Additive Manufacturing techniques. An essential application of Rapid Tooling is the 3D printing of sand moulds for castings. Metal casting is an energy-intensive process; and a lot of research has gone into the sustainability assessment of traditional sand castings. In this work, a robust decision-making approach is developed and implemented for sand mould manufacturing. Sustainability metrics for the mould production are formulated, and the conventional sand moulds are compared against the 3D printed sand moulds. A Multi-Criteria decision-making algorithm is implemented, and the effect of the batch size in the mould manufacturing is also studied. The discussed approach can help decision-makers choose the best mould manufacturing technique for the intended number of moulds to be manufactured.

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    Cranfield CERES
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Cranfield CERES
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    Journal of Cleaner Production
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Cranfield CERES
      Article . 2021
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      Journal of Cleaner Production
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Abu Saifullah; Ben Thomas; Robert Cripps; Kamran Tabeshfar; +1 Authors

    In this study, the low velocity impact properties of rotationally molded skin–foam–skin sandwich structures were investigated experimentally since there is a need for a greater understanding of the impact behavior of these composites in service to extend the range of their applications. Polyethylene rotationally molded sandwich structures were manufactured at various skin and core layer thickness combinations and tested using an instrumented low velocity drop weight impact testing machine at 20–100 J impact energy levels, at room temperature. This allowed the identification of the impact response, failure mode, and the effects of the skin and core layer thickness on impact resistance. Force–deflection curves, maximum force, contact time, maximum deflection versus impact energy curves were analyzed. Samples were seen to fail due to the indentation dart piercing the upper and lower skins, with crushing and consolidation seen in the core foamed layer. Delamination at the core/skin interface was not observed. It was found that fracture initiates from the lower skin and then continues to grow to the upper skin via the foamed core layer. The impact resistance was noted to increase with increasing skin and core layer thickness; though an increase in skin layer thickness had a greater contribution than an increase in the core layer thickness. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 60: 387–397, 2019. © 2019 Society of Plastics Engineers

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    Polymer Engineering & Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Polymer Engineering & Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Quanyao Lin; Satyaprasad P Senanayak; Narges Yaghoobi Nia; Mejd Alsari; +2 Authors

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached a formidable power conversion efficiency of 25.7% over the years of development. One of the strategies that has been responsible for the development of stable and highly efficient PSCs is modifications of the monovalent A‐site cations (methylammonium, MA; formamidinium, FA; cesium, Cs, etc.) in lead halide perovskites. Herein, the impact of modifying the monovalent cation (MA, FAMA, CsFAMA, potassium‐passivated CsFAMA, rubidium‐passivated CsFAMA) in lead halide perovskite on their optoelectronic, charge transport, and photovoltaic behavior is systematically studied. Reduced trap density and improved charge carrier mobility after introduction of FA and Cs in the MAPb(I0.85Br0.15)3 system are confirmed. Further passivation of the triple‐cation perovskite with K and Rb enhances the optoelectronic characteristics, charge transport, and charge extraction efficiency in halide perovskite solar cells.

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    Energy Technology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy Technology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energy Technology
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      Energy Technology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Iván García Kerdan; David Morillón Gálvez; Gustavo Sousa; Santiago Suárez de la Fuente; +2 Authors

    Tropical coastal areas are characterised by high levels of wind and solar resources with large potentials to be utilised for low-energy building design. This paper presents a multi-objective optimisation framework capable of evaluating cost-efficient and low-exergy coastal building designs considering the influence of the thermal breeze. An integrated dynamic simulation tool has been enhanced to consider the impacts of the sea-land breeze effect, aiming at potentiating natural cross-ventilation to improve occupant's thermal comfort and reduce cooling energy demand. Furthermore, the technological database considers a wide range of active and passive energy conservation measures. As a case study, a two-storey/two-flat detached social house located in the North-Pacific coast of Mexico has been investigated. The optimisation problem has considered the minimisation of: i. annual exergy consumption, ii. life cycle cost, and iii. thermal discomfort. Optimisation results have shown that adequate building orientation and window opening control to optimise the effects of the thermal breeze, combined with other passive and active strategies such as solar shading devices, an improved envelope's physical characteristics, and solar assisted air source heat pumps have provided the best performance under a limited budget. Compared to the baseline design, the closest to utopia design has increased thermal comfort by 93.8% and reduced exergy consumption by 10.3% whilst increasing the life cycle cost over the next 50 years by 18.5% (from US$39,864 to US$47,246). The importance of renewable generation incentives is further discussed as a counter effect measure for capital cost increase as well as unlocking currently high-cost low-exergy technologies.

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    Building and Environment
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Building and Environment
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  • Authors: M. Kühn; W.A.A.M. Bierbooms; G.J.W. van Bussel; Tim Cockerill; +6 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marcello Graziano; Maurizio Fiaschetti; Carol Atkinson-Palombo;

    Abstract Building upon recent literature, we combine a novel spatiotemporal variable with spatial methods to investigate and quantify the influence of the built environment and jurisdictional boundaries on spatial peer-effects (SPEs) in inner-city areas. We focus on the Hartford Capital region, using detailed data at block-group and PV system levels for the years 2005-2013. This region is part of a state, Connecticut, actively engaged in supporting PV system at residential level. Adoption of PV systems varies substantially, and state policies are mediated by town-level regulations. We initially employ typology analysis to investigate the heterogeneity of the block groups with higher adoption rates. We then use panel FE and spatial estimations to determine the existence of spill-overs of SPEs beyond town boundaries. Our estimations suggest that new PV systems have a more limited spatiotemporal influence in inner-cities. We identify spatial spill-overs from neighboring block groups even between towns, suggesting that SPEs transcend municipal barriers. We do not find significant results for built-environment, although we identify several data limitations. Our results suggest that centralized, non-voluntary support policies may have larger effects if implemented beyond town-level, and that SPEs change their determination power depending on the underlying built environment.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy Research & Social Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Energy Research & So...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy Research & Social Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gannon, William J. F.; Jones, Daniel R.; Dunnill, Charles W.;

    The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating&rsquo s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Processesarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Imran Shabbir; Mojtaba Mirzaeian;