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  • Authors: Takahito Nishimura; Jakapan Chantana; Yu Kawano; Akira Yamada; +4 Authors

    Modification of the hetero-junction interface in Cd-free and all-dry process Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) solar cells by introducing the aging process for the bare CIGSSe films is demonstrated, ultimately achieving the highest conversion efficiency of 22.0%. In this article, two positive effects of the aging process are discussed. First, additional phases, such as Inx(O,S)y and Cu-deficient phases, are naturally formed on the CIGSSe surface. Second, unintentional segregation of Zn-rich particles at the (Zn,Mg)O/CIGSSe interface during the (Zn,Mg)O deposition is suppressed. These effects lead to the reduction of recombination at the hetero-junction interface and dramatic enhancement of performance for the Cd-free and all-dry process CIGSSe solar cells.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Manfredo Macioti;

    Abstract This paper deals with science, technology and Europe. It purports to show that the European Community (the Common Market of Nine European Countries) has been quite successful in promoting trade, economic growth and industrial competition, interpenetration and specialisation. However, since a large, prosperous, unified market was created in Europe in the late Sixties, a host of new problems has surfaced. These mainly concern the quality of Man's life, the relations between Man and Society, the balance between Man and Nature. These new problems cannot be solved by the invisible hand of the market, but require public intervention, common policies. Here the record of Europe is rather more doubtful, although common solutions to crucial issues such as energy, pollution and science and technology have been under the discussion within the Community for a number of years. On the other hand, joint decisions taken in 1973 on the protection of the environment, the setting-up in early 1974 of joint machinery (CREST) for helping to define a common policy in science and technology, first steps toward the creation of a common capacity for long-range forecasting and assessment, as well as the establishment of a European Science Foundation in 1974 and recent moves toward a common energy policy give some hope for the future of European integration in science and technology.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research Policyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Research Policy
    Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research Policyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Research Policy
      Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • Authors: Hugh Outhred; S. R. Thorncraft;

    This paper presents a framework for analyzing and designing decision-making in the context of an electricity industry or, more broadly, a stationary energy sector. It uses that framework to analyze the approach taken in Australia for preparing for high levels of renewable energy penetration, demonstrating the importance of adopting a systematic approach to this problem and illustrating the outcomes that can be achieved if that is done. The Australian approach has achieved notable successes to date. However, it is a work in progress that is hampered by contested policymaking and the partial privatization of the Australian electricity industry. The paper suggests ways in which further progress could be achieved. These include refinements to wind (and solar) forecasting, enhanced end-user engagement and improvements to gas industry arrangements and electricity-gas compatibility.

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    Authors: Satoshi Hanai;

    Superconducting technology has made progress with nuclear fusion development for about 30 years as an indispensable element of nuclear fusion technology. Some technologies that come from nuclear fusion development are applied to industrial applications. For example cable-in-conduit technology is applied to SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) project. On the other hand, superconducting magnets for MRI system and silicon single crystal growth become practical industries and another technologies that come from these industrial applications are applied to nuclear fusion development. In this report, superconducting products and superconducting technologies are presented at the point of synergy effects of nuclear fusion development and industrial applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Plasma an...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sofia Lizarralde Oliver; Helena Ribeiro;

    Studies indicate the potential carcinogenic and other harmful effects on health of Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacteria) in drinking water. Cyanobacteria blooms are becoming an increasingly common phenomenon worldwide, especially in urban lakes and reservoirs. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the potential relationship between cyanobacteria in the drinking water from the Guarapiranga Reservoir and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo, as well as health risks factors associated. Methods used: literature review and analysis of data on water quality and climate parameters. Results: The Guarapiranga Reservoir in Sao Paulo-Brazil, accountable for supplying water to 3.8 million inhabitants of this city, has shown frequent cyanobacterial blooms when the temperature rises and in rainy weather (summer). Climate change in the city of Sao Paulo can worsen these problems related to drinking water once the ideal climatic conditions for the proliferation of cyanobacteria are increasing in frequency. Especially in the last 20 years, the maximum temperatures are higher and episodes of heavy rain are more frequent. This scenario can magnify a public health problem related to cyanobacteria in Sao Paulo and around the world. Climate change may increase public health risks related to drinking water quality as associated with land use.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: A. Durkin; D.J. Smith; R. Grice;

    Reactive scattering of O atoms with IBr molecules has been studied at an initial translational energy E = 40 kJ mol-1 using a supersonic beam of O atoms seeded in He, and at E = 15 kJ mol-1 using O atoms seeded in Ne. Velocity distributions of OI product were measured by cross-correlation time-of-flight analysis. Full contour maps of the differential reaction cross section were obtained which show mild peaking equally in the forward and backward directions at both initial translational energies. The product translational energy distributions are consistent with a long-lived collision complex dissociating via a loose transition state. The triplet O-I-Br complex is more stable with respect to reaction products than the corresponding O-Br-Br complex of the O + Br2 reaction, due to the lower electronegativity of the central halogen atom. The emergence of rebound dynamics in the O + Br2 reaction is attributed to a shallower well in the exit valley of the potential energy surface compared with that for O + IBr.

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    Molecular Physics
    Article . 1982 . Peer-reviewed
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      Molecular Physicsarrow_drop_down
      Molecular Physics
      Article . 1982 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Uta Schaefer;
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    Biotechnology Journal
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Biotechnology Journal
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vroom, Peter S.;

    Over 100 years ago, before threats such as global climate change and ocean acidification were issues engrossing marine scientists, numerous tropical reef biologists began expressing concern that too much emphasis was being placed on coral dominance in reef systems. These researchers believed that the scientific community was beginning to lose sight of the overall mix of calcifying organisms necessary for the healthy function of reef ecosystems and demonstrated that some reefs were naturally coral dominated with corals being the main organisms responsible for reef accretion, yet other healthy reef ecosystems were found to rely almost entirely on calcified algae and foraminifera for calcium carbonate accumulation. Despite these historical cautionary messages, many agencies today have inherited a coral-centric approach to reef management, likely to the detriment of reef ecosystems worldwide. For example, recent research has shown that crustose coralline algae, a group of plants essential for building and cementing reef systems, are in greater danger of exhibiting decreased calcification rates and increased solubility than corals in warmer and more acidic ocean environments. A shift from coral-centric views to broader ecosystem views is imperative in order to protect endangered reef systems worldwide.

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    Article . 2011
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    Journal of Marine Biology
    Article
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    Journal of Marine Biology
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Marine Biology
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      Journal of Marine Biology
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Yuka Kikuchi; Takeshi Ishihara;

    In this study, the availability and the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) are investigated considering failure rate and downtime for onshore wind turbines in Japan. The failure mode effect analysis is conducted using the wind turbine failure database collected by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Department Organization (NEDO). The normalized failure rate and downtime between Europe and Japan are comparable. The occurrence rate is similar between Europe and Japan, but the downtime in Japan is much longer than that of Europe. Three cost-reduction scenarios are then proposed to improve availability and to reduce LCOE using assumed failure rate and downtime in each mode based on the industry interview and best practices in Japan. The availability is improved from 87.4% for the baseline scenario to 92.7%, 95.5% and 96.4% for the three scenarios, and LCOE is also reduced from 13.7 Yen/kWh to 11.9, 11.0 and 10.7 Yen/kWh. Finally, the probability distributions of downtime and repair cost are obtained for each failure mode. It is found that the probability distributions of the failure modes with the shortest downtime show similar probability distributions regardless of the size of the assembly. The effects of downtime and repair-cost uncertainties on LCOE are also evaluated.

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    Energies
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Energies
    Article . 2021
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    Energies
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      Energies
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Energies
      Article . 2021
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      Energies
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hessam Malmir; Naser Vosoughi;

    Abstract Analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors (e.g., local and global temperature or density fluctuations, as well as primary and charging pumps fluctuations) has various applications in calculation or measurement of the core dynamical parameters (temperature or density reactivity coefficients) in addition to thermal–hydraulics surveillance and diagnostics. In this paper, the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in PWRs are investigated. At first, the single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations (in the frequency domain) are originally derived, without any simplifying assumptions. The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters, as well as the radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. Then, the derived governing equations are discretized using the finite volume method (FVM). Based on the discretized equations and the proposed algorithm of solving, a single heated channel noise calculation code (SHC-Noise) is developed, by which the steady-state and fluctuating parameters of PWR fuel assemblies can be calculated. The noise sources include the inlet coolant temperature and velocity fluctuations, in addition to the power density noises. The developed SHC-Noise code is benchmarked in different cases and scenarios. Furthermore, to show the effects of the power feedbacks, the closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise theory. Both the space- and frequency-dependence of the temperature fluctuations are analyzed in this work.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Annals of Nuclear En...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Annals of Nuclear Energy
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Annals of Nuclear En...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Annals of Nuclear Energy
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Takahito Nishimura; Jakapan Chantana; Yu Kawano; Akira Yamada; +4 Authors

    Modification of the hetero-junction interface in Cd-free and all-dry process Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) solar cells by introducing the aging process for the bare CIGSSe films is demonstrated, ultimately achieving the highest conversion efficiency of 22.0%. In this article, two positive effects of the aging process are discussed. First, additional phases, such as Inx(O,S)y and Cu-deficient phases, are naturally formed on the CIGSSe surface. Second, unintentional segregation of Zn-rich particles at the (Zn,Mg)O/CIGSSe interface during the (Zn,Mg)O deposition is suppressed. These effects lead to the reduction of recombination at the hetero-junction interface and dramatic enhancement of performance for the Cd-free and all-dry process CIGSSe solar cells.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Manfredo Macioti;

    Abstract This paper deals with science, technology and Europe. It purports to show that the European Community (the Common Market of Nine European Countries) has been quite successful in promoting trade, economic growth and industrial competition, interpenetration and specialisation. However, since a large, prosperous, unified market was created in Europe in the late Sixties, a host of new problems has surfaced. These mainly concern the quality of Man's life, the relations between Man and Society, the balance between Man and Nature. These new problems cannot be solved by the invisible hand of the market, but require public intervention, common policies. Here the record of Europe is rather more doubtful, although common solutions to crucial issues such as energy, pollution and science and technology have been under the discussion within the Community for a number of years. On the other hand, joint decisions taken in 1973 on the protection of the environment, the setting-up in early 1974 of joint machinery (CREST) for helping to define a common policy in science and technology, first steps toward the creation of a common capacity for long-range forecasting and assessment, as well as the establishment of a European Science Foundation in 1974 and recent moves toward a common energy policy give some hope for the future of European integration in science and technology.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research Policyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Research Policy
    Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research Policyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Research Policy
      Article . 1975 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Hugh Outhred; S. R. Thorncraft;

    This paper presents a framework for analyzing and designing decision-making in the context of an electricity industry or, more broadly, a stationary energy sector. It uses that framework to analyze the approach taken in Australia for preparing for high levels of renewable energy penetration, demonstrating the importance of adopting a systematic approach to this problem and illustrating the outcomes that can be achieved if that is done. The Australian approach has achieved notable successes to date. However, it is a work in progress that is hampered by contested policymaking and the partial privatization of the Australian electricity industry. The paper suggests ways in which further progress could be achieved. These include refinements to wind (and solar) forecasting, enhanced end-user engagement and improvements to gas industry arrangements and electricity-gas compatibility.

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    Authors: Satoshi Hanai;

    Superconducting technology has made progress with nuclear fusion development for about 30 years as an indispensable element of nuclear fusion technology. Some technologies that come from nuclear fusion development are applied to industrial applications. For example cable-in-conduit technology is applied to SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) project. On the other hand, superconducting magnets for MRI system and silicon single crystal growth become practical industries and another technologies that come from these industrial applications are applied to nuclear fusion development. In this report, superconducting products and superconducting technologies are presented at the point of synergy effects of nuclear fusion development and industrial applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Plasma an...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Plasma an...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sofia Lizarralde Oliver; Helena Ribeiro;

    Studies indicate the potential carcinogenic and other harmful effects on health of Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacteria) in drinking water. Cyanobacteria blooms are becoming an increasingly common phenomenon worldwide, especially in urban lakes and reservoirs. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the potential relationship between cyanobacteria in the drinking water from the Guarapiranga Reservoir and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo, as well as health risks factors associated. Methods used: literature review and analysis of data on water quality and climate parameters. Results: The Guarapiranga Reservoir in Sao Paulo-Brazil, accountable for supplying water to 3.8 million inhabitants of this city, has shown frequent cyanobacterial blooms when the temperature rises and in rainy weather (summer). Climate change in the city of Sao Paulo can worsen these problems related to drinking water once the ideal climatic conditions for the proliferation of cyanobacteria are increasing in frequency. Especially in the last 20 years, the maximum temperatures are higher and episodes of heavy rain are more frequent. This scenario can magnify a public health problem related to cyanobacteria in Sao Paulo and around the world. Climate change may increase public health risks related to drinking water quality as associated with land use.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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