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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

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    Energy and Buildings
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    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Academica-e; Recolec...arrow_drop_down
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      Energy and Buildings
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy and Buildings
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mutaz B. Elbeh; Ahmad K. Sleiti;

    Abstract In this research study, the concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is reviewed for designing and optimizing a CSP tower plant for arid climate regions such as Qatar. A database for all CSP projects around the world is created, and a spreadsheet model for calculating the available solar irradiance is developed. Two software packages are used for analyzing and optimizing the entire solar thermal plant and its cost, SolarPILOT, and System Advisor Model (SAM). Both packages are validated using data from a recent power tower project. A thorough iterative optimization process was developed and applied to optimize the solar field parameters of a suggested CSP plant including tower optical height; heliostat structure width and height; number of heliostats; horizontal and vertical panels; receiver height and diameter; water consumption; cleaning schedule; maintenance; and total cost. The results confirmed the feasibility of a CSP plant on 0.45 km2 of a solar field area with 2736 heliostats that produce 8 MWe with 10 hours of thermal storage and hybrid steam condensing system. It has been found that the highest production of the plant is in July, which is 3 621 950 kWh and the highest excess of electrical energy is in March, which is 2 946 965 kWh.

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  • Authors: L, Högberg; J, Stahle; K, Vogel;
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    Authors: Hajabdollahi, Farzaneh; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour; Hajabdollahi, Zahra; Hamidi, Yaser;

    Abstract In this study, one dimensional heat transfer in a pin fin is modeled and optimized. We used Bezier curves to determine the best geometry of the fin. The model equations are solved to analyze the heat transfer. Total heat transfer rate and fin efficiency factor are considered as two objective functions and multi-objective optimization carried out to maximize heat transfer rate and fin efficiency simultaneously. Fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to determine a set of multiple optimum solutions, called ‘Pareto optimal solutions. The optimized results are presented with Pareto front which demonstrate conflict between two objective functions in the optimized point, both energy conservation and thermal analysis are carried out to verify the solution method and the results shows good precision.

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    Applied Mathematical Modelling
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      Applied Mathematical Modelling
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Marcelo, Binato; Marcelo, Kruel Schmidt; Bernardo, Silveira Volkweis; Guilherme, Behrend Silva Ribeiro; +2 Authors

    Nitrosamines are associated with the potential to induce cancer in the digestive tract. Ethanol has also been shown to enhance the effects of nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate a murine model of the prevalence and types of epithelial lesions induced in the stomach by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and to evaluate the influence of ethanol and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) as promoters of gastric carcinogenesis.Two hundred eight (n = 208) mice were distributed into five groups and administered either water (G1), DEN+water (G2), DEN+NNN (G3), DEN+Ethanol (G4), or DEN+NNN+Ethanol (G5) for a period of 180 days. Mice were sacrificed; their stomachs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Stomachs were analyzed for normal histology; foveolar hyperplasia; gastritis; ulcer; adenoma; metaplasia; dysplasia; squamous-cell cancer (SCC); and adenocarcinoma (ACA).One hundred eighty-four (N = 184) specimens were studied. No statistically significant differences were observed between the average DEN consumption of groups (P0.05). Unlike G1, in all four groups exposed to carcinogens, gastric SCC and ACA were induced (P0.001). SCC was identified in 91 (49.5%) and ACA in 77 (41.8%) of all mice (including controls). In 47 mice (25.5%), we identified two histological types of carcinoma that occurred simultaneously. The prevalence of ACA in G5 was higher when compared with the other exposed groups (P0.001).We created an optimal murine model for investigation of the development of gastric carcinogenesis, as there was a high rate of development of tumors, but low mortality and morbidity. The coadministration of DEN, ethanol, and NNN induced carcinogenesis to the largest extent compared with the other combinations.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Surgical ...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Surgical Research
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Surgical ...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Surgical Research
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nuzhath F, Tajuddin; Luisa A, Orrico; Jason L, Eriksen; Mary J, Druse;

    Abstract Previously, results of studies from our laboratory have shown that the offspring of ethanol-fed female rats have a significant decrease in serotonin (5-HT) neurons and glia that contain S100B, an essential trophic factor for the development of 5-HT neurons. The deficiency of S100B-immunopositive glia was detected during the vulnerable period in 5-HT neuron development and in brain areas proximal to these neurons. The reductions of both 5-HT neurons and S100B-positive glia were prevented by maternal treatment with a 5-HT 1A agonist (i.e., ipsapirone or buspirone). In the current study, we investigated whether the offspring of ethanol-fed rats had a general decrease in the density of glial cells in the brain areas that contain 5-HT neurons, and we determined whether these changes were prevented by maternal treatment with ipsapirone between gestational days (GDs) 13 and 20. We estimated the density of vimentin-positive glia of the midline raphe glial structure (MRGS) at GD 20 and postnatal day (PND) 5 and of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)–positive astrocytes proximal to the dorsal and median raphe at PNDs 5 and 19. The results of this study provide evidence that in utero ethanol exposure is associated with a reduced density of GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes proximal to the dorsal and median raphe. Maternal ipsapirone treatment significantly increased astroglial density in the dorsal raphe at PNDs 5 and 19 and in the median raphe at PND 5, such that it either prevented (dorsal raphe, PNDs 5 and 19) or blunted (median raphe, PND 5) the effects of ethanol.

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    Alcohol
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2003
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      Alcohol
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2003
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jessica Côte; Jean-Marc Roussel; S. Le Cam; Frédéric Guillaume; +1 Authors

    We thank our colleagues from the U3E staff (INRA, Rennes) for their help during field sessions and rearing experiments: G. Bertrand, A. Cheyrousse, A. Gallard, N. Jeannot, B. Joseph, C. Lacoste, F. Marchand, A. Quemeneur, C. Saget and J. Tremblay. We are also really grateful to D. Huteau for his help during capture and rearing. We also acknowledge A. Baisez, D. Balestin, A. Bardonnet, D. Barracou, E. Bussy, R. Delanoe, P. Etchecopar, P. Gaudin, Y. Guilloux, M. Hoffman, F. Lange, C. Lousto, Y. Moulia, P. Martin, Y. Moello, E. Prevost, J. Rancon, G. Surzur and V. Vauclin who were involved in the capture of Atlantic salmon or supplied environmental data on the study sites. We are also grateful to Juha Merila and an anonymous referee for extremely useful comments on previous drafts of the manuscript. SLC was supported by a grant from Plan Loire Grandeur Nature (project no 34108) to GE.; In the context of global changes, the long-term viability of populations of endangered ectotherms may depend on their adaptive potential and ability to cope with temperature variations. We measured responses of Atlantic salmon embryos from four populations to temperature variations and used a Q(ST)-F-ST approach to study the adaptive divergence among these populations. Embryos were reared under two experimental conditions: a low temperature regime at 4 degrees C until eyed-stage and 10 degrees C until the end of embryonic development and a high temperature regime with a constant temperature of 10 degrees C throughout embryonic development. Significant variations among populations and populationxtemperature interactions were observed for embryo survival, incubation time and length. Q(ST) was higher than F-ST in all but one comparison suggesting an important effect of divergent selection. Q(ST) was also higher under the high-temperature treatment than at low temperature for length and survival due to a higher variance among populations under the stressful warmer treatment. Interestingly, heritability was lower for survival under high temperature in relation to a lower additive genetic variance under that treatment. Overall, these results reveal an adaptive divergence in thermal plasticity in embryonic life stages of Atlantic salmon suggesting that salmon populations may differentially respond to temperature variations induced by climate change. These results also suggest that changes in temperature may alter not only the adaptive potential of natural populations but also the selection regimes among them.

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    https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.20...
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Evolutionary Biology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.20...
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      Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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    Authors: Lufei Jia; Edward J. Anthony; Ivan Lau; Jinsheng Wang;

    Ignition tests were conducted with delayed and fluid petroleum cokes, a high volatile bituminous coal and their blends in bench- and pilot-scale fluidized bed combustors. In the bench-scale FBC tests, a visual inspection ignition criterion was developed based on the ‘CO–CO2’ profiles obtained as a function of time and bed temperature. In the pilot-scale unit, the rapid increase in SO2 levels was used as the indicator of fuel ignition. In addition to the fluidized bed ignition tests, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements were made on all fuels and their chars. The results showed that, while the fluid coke (which has the lowest volatile content) was the most difficult to ignite, ignition was not a simple function of volatile content. Further, different test methods and ignition criteria demonstrated significantly different ignition temperatures, with the largest variation arising between bench- and pilot-scale equipment. Finally, tests on mixtures of petroleum coke and coal showed that there was no interaction between these two fuels, and that the coke ignited only when it achieved its own ignition temperature.

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    Fuel
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      Fuel
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: CAROLINE PICHARILLO; VICTOR EDUARDO LIMA RANIERI;

    Abstract The economic tool of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has been considered as an alternative for the conservation of the biodiversity and ecosystem services in private lands. To guide decision makers in implementing PES schemes, this paper aimed to identify in the scientific literature the important elements to prioritize areas in the implementation of PES-biodiversity schemes. It is claimed that the elements extracted from PES-biodiversity schemes must be used as a reference to guide the implementation of other PES schemes based on the recovery and maintenance of natural areas (e.g. water, carbon, environmental aesthetics conditions). Thus, the sustainability of PES schemes can be guaranteed over time. Resumen El instrumento económico de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) es una alternativa para la conservación de la biodiversidad y de los servicios ecosistémicos en terrenos privados. Con la finalidad de orientar a tomadores de decisión, en el proceso de implementación de esquemas de PSA, este trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar en la literatura científica elementos importantes para la priorización de áreas en la implementación de esquemas de PSA-biodiversidad. La condicionante de partida es, que los elementos extraídos de los esquemas de PSA-biodiversidad tienen que ser utilizados como referencia para orientar la implantación de otro esquema de PSA basados en la recuperación y manutención de las áreas naturales (p.e. agua, carbón, belleza escénica). De esta forma la sustentabilidad de los esquemas de PSA pueden garantizarse a lo largo del tiempo. Resumo O instrumento econômico de Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais (PSA) tem sido considerado uma alternativa para a conservação da biodiversidade e dos serviços ecossistêmicos em terras privadas. Com a finalidade de orientar os tomadores de decisão no processo de implantação de esquemas de PSA, este artigo teve por objetivo identificar na literatura científica os elementos importantes para se priorizar áreas para a implantação de esquemas de PSA-biodiversidade. Parte-se do argumento de que os elementos extraídos dos esquemas de PSA-biodiversidade devem ser utilizados como referência para orientar a implantação de outros esquemas de PSA baseados na recuperação e manutenção de áreas naturais (e.g. água, carbono, beleza cênica). Dessa forma, a sustentabilidade dos esquemas de PSA poderá ser garantida ao longo do tempo.

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    DOAJ-Articles
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    Ambiente & Sociedade
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ambiente & Sociedade
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    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

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    Energy and Buildings
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    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energy and Buildings
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    Authors: Mutaz B. Elbeh; Ahmad K. Sleiti;

    Abstract In this research study, the concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is reviewed for designing and optimizing a CSP tower plant for arid climate regions such as Qatar. A database for all CSP projects around the world is created, and a spreadsheet model for calculating the available solar irradiance is developed. Two software packages are used for analyzing and optimizing the entire solar thermal plant and its cost, SolarPILOT, and System Advisor Model (SAM). Both packages are validated using data from a recent power tower project. A thorough iterative optimization process was developed and applied to optimize the solar field parameters of a suggested CSP plant including tower optical height; heliostat structure width and height; number of heliostats; horizontal and vertical panels; receiver height and diameter; water consumption; cleaning schedule; maintenance; and total cost. The results confirmed the feasibility of a CSP plant on 0.45 km2 of a solar field area with 2736 heliostats that produce 8 MWe with 10 hours of thermal storage and hybrid steam condensing system. It has been found that the highest production of the plant is in July, which is 3 621 950 kWh and the highest excess of electrical energy is in March, which is 2 946 965 kWh.

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  • Authors: L, Högberg; J, Stahle; K, Vogel;
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    Authors: Hajabdollahi, Farzaneh; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour; Hajabdollahi, Zahra; Hamidi, Yaser;

    Abstract In this study, one dimensional heat transfer in a pin fin is modeled and optimized. We used Bezier curves to determine the best geometry of the fin. The model equations are solved to analyze the heat transfer. Total heat transfer rate and fin efficiency factor are considered as two objective functions and multi-objective optimization carried out to maximize heat transfer rate and fin efficiency simultaneously. Fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to determine a set of multiple optimum solutions, called ‘Pareto optimal solutions. The optimized results are presented with Pareto front which demonstrate conflict between two objective functions in the optimized point, both energy conservation and thermal analysis are carried out to verify the solution method and the results shows good precision.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Applied Mathematical...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Applied Mathematical Modelling
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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