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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Njiri, Jackson Githu;

    Dissertation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2016 Windenergie wird zunehmend als erneuerbare Energiequellen attraktiv, da Wind nachhaltig genutzt werden kann. In vielen Ländern gibt es umfangreiche Anstrengungen, die Produktion von elektrischer Energie aus Wind zu steigern. Im Vergleich zu anderen erneuerbaren Energiequellen wie Sonne, Gezeiten, Wasserkraft o.ä. ist die Energiegewinnung aus Wind technologisch ausgereifter. Daher ist die Energiegewinnung aus Wind stärker gewachsen ist als andere Technologien. Windkraft verursacht weniger nachteilige Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt als konventionelle Energiequellen. Aufgrund der vergleichsweise hohen Investitions-, Betriebs- und Wartungskosten sind trotz einer weltweit starken Verbreitung von Windenergieanlagen die Produktionskosten von Windenergie im Vergleich mit anderen alternativen Energiequellen hoch. Um die wachsende Nachfrage nachWindkraft zu befriedigen, werdenWindkraftanlagen in Größe und Leistung zunehmend skaliert. Bei zunehmender Größe dominieren die strukturellen Lasten der Turbine. Dies führt vermehrt zu Materialermüdung und Ausfällen. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt in der Entwicklung von Windtechologie ist die Forderung nach Senkung der Produktionskosten, um einen Wettbewerbsvorteil gegenüber anderen alternativen Energiequellen zu schaffen. Im Bereich der Steuerung können niedrigere Produktionskosten durch den Betrieb der Windturbine am/oder in der Nähe der optimalen Energieeffizienz im Teillastbetrieb erreicht werden. Dies erhöht die Zuverlässigkeit durch Verringerung des Verschleißes und die erzeugte Nennleistung auf ihrem Nennwert im hohen Windregime. Häufig ist es schwierig, einen Steueralgorithmus zu realisieren, der sowohl Effizienz als auch Zuverlässigkeit gewährleistet, da diese beiden Ziele widersprechen. In dieser Arbeit werden Mehrzielsteuerungsstrategien sowohl für den Teillastbereich als auch für hohe Windgeschwindigkeits bereiche vorgestellt. Im Bereich geringer Windgeschwindigkeiten ist eine Steuerungsstrategie so zu konzipieren, dass die Stromerzeugung sowie die strukturelle Belastung im Sinne einer Balance zwischen maximalen Stromproduktion und verlängerter Lebensdauer der Windturbine optimal ist. Für den Bereich hoher Windgeschwindigkeiten wird ein multivariates Steuerungsverfahren vorgeschlagen, um das Verhältnis von Leistung/Geschwindigkeit und struktureller Lastreduzierung zu optimieren. Es wird ein Regler zur Einzelblattverstellung entworfen, um sowohl die unausgewogene Strukturlasten als auch durch die Variation des Windgeschwindigkeit verursachte Rotorscheibe, vertikale Windscherung und Gierversatz fehler zu reduzieren. Um die Zuverlässigkeit derWindturbine zu gewährleisten, ist ein Online-Schadensbewertungsmodell in den Hauptwindturbinenregelkreis integriert, so dass die Windturbine entsprechend ihres aktuellen Verschleißzustandes betrieben wird. In Abhängigkeit von der akkumulierten Schadenshöhe werden Regler zur Einzelblattverstellung mit unterschiedlichen Lastreduktionen und Kompromissen bei der Stromerzeugung eingesetzt, um zwischen den beiden Zielen verlängerte Lebensdauer und Leistungsregelung einen geeigneten Kompromiss zu erzielten. Aufgrund der Herausforderungen die mit Offshore-Windpark Standorten verbunden sind, ist diese Art von prognose-basierter Regelung im Windturbinenbetrieb vor allem im Offshore-Einsatz vorteilhaft. Insbesondere im Kontext output-basierter Vertragsformen z.B. power purchase agreement (PPA) kann dieser Ansatz zur Optimierung der Wartungsplanung genutzt werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die vorgeschlagenen Strategien die Auflast auf Windturbinen reduzieren kann ohne sich auf andere Ziele wie die Leistungsoptimierung und Leistung/Drehzahlregelung auszuwirken. Es konnte außerdem gezeigt werden, dass eine prognostisch basierte Steuerung effektiv die Lebensdauer von Windenergieanalagen verlängern kann, ohne das Ziel der Leistungsregelung einzuschränken. Wind energy is one of the rapidly growing renewable sources of energy due to the fact that wind is abundantly available and unlikely to be exhausted like fossil fuel. Additionally, there are deliberate effort to sensitize many countries to develop polices that support production of electrical power from wind. Maturity of wind energy technology has made power production from wind grow significantly compared to other renewable energy sources such as solar, tidal, hydro among others. Like many other renewable energy sources, production of power from wind has less adverse effects on the environment. Despite the growth of global cumulative installed wind capacity, its cost of production is still higher compared to other alternative energy sources due to high initial investment cost and high operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. To meet the growing demand of wind power, wind turbines are being scaled up both in size and power rating. However, as the size increases, the structural loads of the turbine become more dominant, causing increased fatigue stress on the turbine components and consequent loss of functionality before the end of lifetime. Another area of focus in wind power production is lowering its production cost; hence, making it more competitive compared to other alternative power sources. From the control point of view, low production cost of wind energy can be achieved by operating wind turbine at/or near the optimum power efficiency during partial load regime, regulating generated power to its rated value in the high wind regime as well as mitigating structural loads so as to guarantee extended lifetime. Often, it is difficult to realize a control algorithm that can effectively guarantee both efficiency and reliability because these two aspects involve conflicting objective. Therefore, it is important to optimize the trade-off between these competing control objectives. In this thesis, multi-objective control strategies for both the partial load region and high wind speed region are presented. During low wind speed, a control strategy that optimizes power production as well as mitigating structural load is designed to balance between power production maximization and extended lifetime of wind turbine. On the other hand, a multivariate control method to balance between power/speed regulation and structural load reduction is proposed for high wind speed region. More specifically, an individual blade pitch controller is designed to eliminate the unbalanced deterministic structural loads across rotor disc caused by variation in wind speed, vertical wind shear, and yaw misalignment error. To guarantee reliability in wind turbine, an online damage evaluation model is also integrated into the main wind turbine control loop such that wind turbine is operated accordance to its structural health status in order to tolerate fault or to extend its service lifetime by a given period of time. Depending on the accumulated damage level, individual pitch controllers with different degrees of load reduction and power production compromise are employed to balance between extended lifetime and power regulation objective. This kind of prognostic-based control is useful in wind turbine operation, especially in offshore application due to challenges associated with offshore wind farm sites. Additionally, in wind farms that are managed through output-based contracts such as power purchase agreement (PPA), this approach can be utilized to optimize maintenance scheduling to avoid unscheduled downtime. The results demonstrated that the proposed multi-objective control strategies can reduce structural load on wind turbine without adversely affecting other objectives of power optimization and power/speed regulation. It has also be shown that a prognostic-based control can be effectively used to extend the lifetime of wind turbine without sacrificing the objective of power regulation.

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    Authors: Abada, A; Abbrescia, M; AbdusSalam, SS; Abdyukhanov, I; +196 Authors

    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched, as an international collaboration hosted by CERN. This study covers a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), which could, successively, be installed in the same 100 km tunnel. The scientific capabilities of the integrated FCC programme would serve the worldwide community throughout the 21st century. The FCC study also investigates an LHC energy upgrade, using FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the second volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the electron-positron collider FCC-ee. After summarizing the physics discovery opportunities, it presents the accelerator design, performance reach, a staged operation scenario, the underlying technologies, civil engineering, technical infrastructure, and an implementation plan. FCC-ee can be built with today’s technology. Most of the FCC-ee infrastructure could be reused for FCC-hh. Combining concepts from past and present lepton colliders and adding a few novel elements, the FCC-ee design promises outstandingly high luminosity. This will make the FCC-ee a unique precision instrument to study the heaviest known particles (Z, W and H bosons and the top quark), offering great direct and indirect sensitivity to new physics. European physical journal special topics 228(2), 261 - 623 (2019). doi:10.1140/epjst/e2019-900045-4 Published by Springer, Heidelberg

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    UiS Brage
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    KITopen
    Article . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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    Fraunhofer-ePrints
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      KITopen
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2019
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2019
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      Fraunhofer-ePrints
      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Oeck, Sebastian; Szymonowicz, Klaudia; Wiel, Gesa; Krysztofiak, Adam; +5 Authors

    Proton beam therapy is increasingly applied for the treatment of human cancer, as it promises to reduce normal tissue damage. However, little is known about the relationship between linear energy transfer (LET), the type of DNA damage, and cellular repair mechanisms, particularly for cells irradiated with protons. We irradiated cultured cells delivering equal doses of X-ray photons, Bragg-peak protons, or plateau protons and used this set-up to quantitate initial DNA damage (mainly DNA double strand breaks (DSBs)), and to analyze kinetics of repair by detecting γH2A.X or 53BP1 using immunofluorescence. The results obtained validate the reliability of our set-up in delivering equal radiation doses under all conditions employed. Although the initial numbers of γH2A.X and 53BP1 foci scored were similar under the different irradiation conditions, it was notable that the maximum foci level was reached at 60 min after irradiation with Bragg-peak protons, as compared to 30 min for plateau protons and photons. Interestingly, Bragg-peak protons induced larger and irregularly shaped γH2A.X and 53BP1 foci. Additionally, the resolution of these foci was delayed. These results suggest that Bragg-peak protons induce DNA damage of increased complexity which is difficult to process by the cellular repair apparatus. OA Förderung 2018

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: The Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; +196 Authors

    We report a measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above $2.5{\times} 10^{18}$ eV based on $215,030$ events. New results are presented: at about $1.3{\times} 10^{19}$ eV, the spectral index changes from $2.51 \pm 0.03 \textrm{ (stat.)} \pm 0.05 \textrm{ (sys.)}$ to $3.05 \pm 0.05 \textrm{ (stat.)}\pm 0.10\textrm{ (sys.)}$, evolving to $5.1\pm0.3\textrm{ (stat.)} \pm 0.1\textrm{ (sys.)}$ beyond $5{\times} 10^{19}$ eV, while no significant dependence of spectral features on the declination is seen in the accessible range. These features of the spectrum can be reproduced in models with energy-dependent mass composition. The energy density in cosmic rays above $5{\times} 10^{18}$ eV is $(5.66 \pm 0.03 \textrm{ (stat.)} \pm 1.40 \textrm{ (sys.)} ) {\times} 10^{53}~$erg Mpc$^{-3}$. Published version; 2 figures, 1 table

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY SA
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    Article . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Kretschmer, Marlene; Cohen, Judah; Matthias, Vivien; Runge, Jakob; +1 Authors

    The stratospheric polar vortex can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather in the mid-latitudes. Weak vortex states, often associated with sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW), have been shown to increase the risk of cold-spells especially over Eurasia, but its role for North American winters is less clear. Using cluster analysis, we show that there are two dominant patterns of increased polar cap heights in the lower stratosphere. Both patterns represent a weak polar vortex but they are associated with different wave mechanisms and different regional tropospheric impacts. The first pattern is zonally symmetric and associated with absorbed upward-propagating wave activity, leading to a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and cold-air outbreaks over northern Eurasia. This coupling mechanism is well-documented in the literature and is consistent with the downward migration of the northern annular mode (NAM). The second pattern is zonally asymmetric and linked to downward reflected planetary waves over Canada followed by a negative phase of the Western Pacific Oscillation (WPO) and cold-spells in Central Canada and the Great Lakes region. Causal effect network (CEN) analyses confirm the atmospheric pathways associated with this asymmetric pattern. Moreover, our findings suggest the reflective mechanism to be sensitive to the exact region of upward wave-activity fluxes and to be state-dependent on the strength of the vortex. Identifying the causal pathways that operate on weekly to monthly timescales can pave the way for improved sub-seasonal to seasonal forecasting of cold spells in the mid-latitudes.

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    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    The organization of large amounts of DNA within eukaryotic nuclei and especially its accessibility for transcription and replication has been a large research interest. Cells use nucleosomes arranged in chromatin fibers to systematically pack large amounts of DNA and still be able to access certain areas when needed. This thesis focuses on two methods used by cells to address the processing of chromatin - Post-translational modifications and chromatin remodeling. Post-translational modifications are small chemical groups attached to specific histone positions and thereby affecting the stability of those. Chromatin remodelers on the other hand are proteins that allow for nucleosomes not only to be moved along DNA, but also for histones to be excluded or exchanged from nucleosomes as well as whole histone octamers to be excluded. We addressed both projects using recombinantly expressed human histones assembled into histone octamers. Nucleosomes are constructed using fluorescent labeled 200bp ’601’ Widom positioning sequence. Our study focuses on using single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) to image changes in conformation of the nucleosomal constructs. smFRET allows for unique insights in ambient conditions and varying buffer conditions. This advantage is used to observe the salt dependent stability of post-translational modified nucleosomes. smFRET allows also to draw distance information from the measurements and thereby gives the opportunity to build structural models. By single-labeling the chromatin remodeler CHD1 and side-specifically labeling nucleosomes we could measure a network consisting 47 measurements. The Fast-Nano-Positioning System (FastNPS). gives the unique opportunity to use previously existing partial structural data to build full models. Investigating the interaction of CHD1 with nucleosomes in presence of different nucleotides gave us the opportunity to gain new insights into the remodeling mechanisms. Comparison of our findings with other known remodelers allows to put these results in context and find similarities between remodeler families. It also gives inspirations for further experiments that would help to better understand chromatin remodeling.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2020
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    https://doi.org/10.18725/oparu...
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      Doctoral thesis . 2020
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    Authors: Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; +20 Authors

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance‐induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well‐defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta‐analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land‐cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground‐based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub‐)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global upscaling of the impacts of climate extremes on global carbon–climate feedbacks. Global Change Biology, 21 (8) ISSN:1354-1013 ISSN:1365-2486

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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    Article . 2015
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    Article . 2015
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Rajavelu, Keren;

    Die Biogasaufbereitung ist eine effiziente Methode, die Energie von Biogas zu erhöhen und die weltweite Energienachfrage zu verbessern. Allerdings sind die meisten der entwickelten Technologien heute problematisch, aufgrund der hohen Kosten, des hohen Energiebedarfes und der Treibhausgasemissionen aufgrund von Methanverlusten. Die Kombination aus Schwefelwasserstoff- und Kohlendioxidentfernung durch aerobe biologische Entschwefelung in Verbindung mit Kesselasche-CO2-Abscheidung, liefert eine vielversprechende Alternative für genannte Probleme. In der vorliegenden Studie konnte gezeigt werden, das die Kombination im Prinzip machbar ist und ökologische sowie ökonomische Vorteile hat. Im Labor- und Pilotmaßstab konnte der Methangehalt angereichert werden. Der Biogasstrom wurde mit Hilfe Schwefelwasserstoffoxidierender Bakterien effizient von H2S gereinigt und CO2 wurde durch Kesselasche fixiert. Der Biofilmfilter zeigte eine Effizienz von 99 %, wenn die Beaufschlagung mit H2S bei 14,2 g S-H2S m-3h-1lag. Die kritische Beladungsrate wurde bestimmt. Die FISH-Analyse bestätigte den Besatz der Rost- und Kesselasche mit Sulfid-oxidierenden Bakterien. Rost- und Kesselasche mit relativ hohem Feuchtigkeitsgehalt war in der Lage, CO2 zu absorbieren und Karbonate umzuwandeln. Die Menge hierbei lag bei 14,5 g CO2 kg-1. Die Kombination der beiden Prozesse, sowohl im Labormaßstab als auch in der Pilotstudie wurde getestet. Studien mit echtem Biogas bewiesen, dass die Methode funktioniert und einen Methangehalt von ca. 90 Vol.% generiert. Bei der Analyse des LCA zeigten sich Vorteile im Vergleich zur Pressure Swing Adsorption Methode. Darüber hinaus ist eine technisch-wirtschaftliche Analyse durchgeführt worden, um die wirtschaftliche Machbarkeit der Methode abzuschätzen. Biogas upgrading is an efficient method to increase biogas energy value and to offset world energy demand. However, most of the technologies developed today suffer a setback due to high cost, high energy requirement and greenhouse gas emissions due to methane losses. The combined hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removal process, which integrates both biological aerobic desulphurization and bottom ash CO2 capture method, is a promising alternative for such problems. In the present study, the combined removal process was proved to be technically feasible as well as environmentally safe and economically profitable. Lab scale and pilot test study of the combined removal process proved to enrich methane content of the biogas stream by efficiently removing H2S using sulfideoxidizing bacteria. CO2 was captured and stored mineralogical by bottom ash. Individual biotrickling filter designed for H2S removal showed removal efficiency of 99 % when the loading rate of H2S was 14.2 g S-H2S m-3h-1. Removal efficiency increased for increasing loading rate until the critical loading point. The FISH analysis confirmed the diverse population of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in the biotrickling filter. Bottom ash with moisture content was able to absorb CO2 gas and efficiently converting it into mineral carbonates. The sorption capacity of bottom ash was found to be 14.5 g CO2.kg-1. The combined removal performance of both process where executed both in lab scale and in the pilot test study. Experimental trials with real biogas proved that the method is technically viable while achieving methane content of 91.1 vol % at the outlet. Life cycle analysis of the combined removal process showed that the global warming potential in terms of kg CO2-Eq is least as compared to Pressure swing adsorption method. Furthermore, a techno-economic analysis was performed to study the economic feasibility and to analyze the hotspots and bottleneck in implementing this technology as compared to that of combined heat and power (CHP) and Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) method. Dissertation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2018

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    Authors: Sina Heidari;

    The European demand for natural gas imports may change through the energy transition, which may affect natural gas exporters’ strategic behavior and consequently the natural gas prices. Changes in natural gas prices in turn influence the European energy sector in terms of gas consumption in the short-term and investments in the long-term. The present paper develops a large-scale partial equilibrium market model formulated as a mixed complementarity model (MCP) with conjectural variations. This model considers the global natural gas market and the European markets of electricity, heating, and emission trading in one equilibrium. We apply this model to investigate the long-term impact of market power by gas exporters on the mentioned energy-related markets on the horizon of 2050. The results of the study show that a decrease in the market power by gas exporters decreases natural gas prices, leading to cheaper electricity and CO2 prices in the mid-term. However, a very tight emission cap in 2050 can result in the reverse phenomenon. OA Förderung 2020

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    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Unger, Sebastian; Müller, Jonas; Bangalore Mohankumar, Malini; Rath, Sebastian; +1 Authors

    The annual waste heat available from industry in the European Union is more than 2,700 PJ. Consequently, the utilization of the unexploited thermal energy will decisively contribute to a reduced overall power consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles offer a variety of advantages for that purpose compared to established power cycles. Such are a high conversion efficiency and a turbomachinery with high power density. The pre-cooler is one of the essential components in an sCO2 power cycle and the prediction of the flow and heat transfer characteristics is a challenging task. In the present investigation, cycle layouts were developed for one waste heat source: a gas compressor station. The pre-cooler design as well as the boundary conditions of the< numerical simulation were assessed by an analytical model. The most promising design was the printed circuit heat exchanger with inlet temperatures between 209 °C and 352 °C. Subsequently, these heat exchangers were examined in more detail by the numerical code ANSYS CFX for sCO2 mass fluxes between 100 kg/(m² s) and 900 kg/(m² s). The pressure drop along the sCO2 channel was found insensitive to the channel diameter, but increased with the channel length and mass flux. However, the pressure drop of the coolant stream significantly depends on the channel diameter and thus a larger coolant channel diameter is recommended to maintain a reasonably low pressure drop. The overall heat transfer coefficient is limited by the heat transfer on the coolant side. Ultimately, pre-cooler designs were proposed for a waste heat system of a gas compressor station, consisting of compact modular stainless steel plates with an sCO2 channel diameter of 0.5 mm, a coolant channel diameter of 0.8 mm, an sCO2 mass flux of 700 kg/(m² s) and a coolant mass flux of 1029 kg/(m² s). Based on these results more complex channels designs, including internal fins were studied. The fin height was optimized, in order to improve the heat transfer performance. Conference Proceedings of the European sCO2 Conference4th European sCO2 Conference for Energy Systems: March 23-24, 2021, Online Conference, p. 249

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    Energies
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ROBIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: ROBIS
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    Conference object . 2021
    Data sources: ROBIS
    https://doi.org/10.17185/duepu...
    Other literature type . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Energiesarrow_drop_down
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