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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Celino, Massimo; Gusso, Michele; Giusepponi, Simone;

    In this paper we report results from a benchmark in which we compare the performances of three HPC clusters: CRESCO4 and CRESCO5 located in the Portci ENEA centre, and JURECA located in Juelich Supercomputing Centre.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2016
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2016
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moreno, Angelo; Cigolotti, Viviana; Della Pietra, Massimiliano; Mcphail, Stephen J.;

    Reducing our carbon footprint is widely acknowledged as one of modern society’s top priorities, as well as building a sustainable economy based on knowledge and innovation for enduring opportunities of development. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) offer rich potential in these terms as a forward-looking and highly flexible way to reduce CO2 emissions providing more efficient and cleaner, greener energy, making use of both fossil and renewable sources. MCFCs are a key technology for stationary applications, especially in the size of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, which is a very interesting power range in view of the increasing decentralization of energy supply and the increased need for high-quality power independent of the grid. After several years of research programs and extensive demonstration, MCFC-based systems are now appearing in commercial ventures of multiple megawatts, providing clean energy to commercial and small/mid-size industrial customers all over the world. Especially in this phase of early deployment, and with a view to stay at the forefront of smart solutions for the evolving energy paradigm, to improve the technology, increase reliability and reduce manufacturing costs, a lot of effort is still required from research and development to safeguard the relevancy and make real the enormous potential of MCFC solutions in the near and long-term future. The present report attempts to provide an accurate review of the current status of MCFC technology and deployment in the world. The basic principles will be introduced briefly and an overview of currently operational power plants will be set against a perspective of innovative system applications with great future market potential. The main stakeholders in this highly fertile field will be pointed out together with their core competences and contributions to the advancement of the technology. Le celle a combustibile a carbonati fusi (MCFC) costituiscono un modo altamente flessibile, di ricco potenziale e di avanguardia per ridurre le emissioni CO2, fornendo energia più efficiente, più pulita e più verde, facendo uso sia di fonti fossili che rinnovabili. MCFC è una tecnologia chiave per le applicazioni stazionarie, in particolar modo nelle dimensioni d’impianto che vanno dalle centinaia alle migliaia di kilowatt, spettro assai interessante considerato che la fornitura di energia elettrica va sempre più decentralizzandosi, e considerando la necessità di crescente indipendenza dalla rete. Dopo diversi anni di ricerca e dimostrazione, i sistemi MCFC emergono ora come applicazioni commerciali dell’ordine dei megawatt, fornendo energia pulita a clienti distribuiti in tutto il mondo. Particolarmente in questa prima fase di diffusione – e per rimanere all’avanguardia delle soluzioni ad alto livello che caratterizzano il paradigma energetico in evoluzione, per migliorare la tecnologia, per aumentarne l’affidabilità e per ridurne i costi di produzione – il ruolo della ricerca e sviluppo rimane di fondamentale importanza, per concretizzare l’enorme potenziale delle soluzioni MCFC sia a breve che a lungo termine. In tale ottica questo rapporto, in lingua inglese, fornisce una rassegna aggiornata dello status della tecnologia MCFC e la sua diffusione nel mondo. Vengono presentati brevemente i principi di funzionamento, le centrali già in esercizio e la prospettiva delle applicazioni innovative del sistema con maggiore potenziale di mercato per il futuro. Gli attori principali del settore vengono indicati assieme alle loro competenze di base e ai loro contributi al progresso della tecnologia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2015
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pierro, N.; Giocoli, A.; De Bari, I.; Agostini, A.; +2 Authors

    Il Piano Nazionale Integrato per l’Energia e il Clima del 2019, assegna un ruolo prioritario al gas rinnovabile al fine del raggiungimento dei target di immissione al consumo di biocarburanti previsto dalla direttiva sulla promozione dell'uso dell'energia da fonti rinnovabili -RED II- in Unione Europea. In particolare si prevede nell’arco temporale 2021-2030 di applicazione del piano, nel settore trasporti, un utilizzo di biometano avanzato in forte crescita per arrivare nel 2030 a un consumo pari a 800 ktep annui (circa 1,1 miliardi di m3) rispetto ai 82 ktep di biometano avanzato immesso al consumo nel 2020 (Gestore Servizi Energetici s.p.a). Le stime di questo studio riguardano il potenziale teorico di biometano avanzato producibile in Italia da digestione anaerobica. Il potenziale determinato è teorico in quanto non tiene conto di un possibile uso alternativo dei substrati, quale ad esempio uso diretto (lasciato in campo, combustione o compostaggio), o di filiere di produzione di prodotti biobased(e.g. biopolimeri, biolubrificanti, biodiesel, altri intermediari di processi chimici, etc.) e/o di altri biocarburanti. La stima su base territoriale delle varie biomasse residuali fermentabili realizzata in questo studio, in termini quantitativi e di producibilità di biometano avanzato da upgrading del biogas, ha il grande vantaggio di contenere quel valore di allocazione geografica che permetterà una più corretta valutazione degli elementi di logistica ed integrazione delle reti energetiche con l’obiettivo di fornire agli stakeholders della filiera biogas-biometano avanzato una base dati su cui formulare studi di fattibilità di un sistema integrato di produzione. Il potenziale totale teorico calcolato con dati aggiornati al 2016 è valutato pari a circa 6,2 miliardi di m3 all’anno di biometano avanzato, ovvero un valore che ha lo stesso ordine di grandezza del gas naturale di origine fossile prodotta in Italia nel 2016 (6,0 miliardi di m3) e che è pari a circa l’8,7% dei consumi totali dello stesso anno (70,9 miliardi di m3). The Integrated National Plan for Energy and Climate (PNIEC) of 2019, assigns a priority role to renewable gas in order to achieve the targets for injection to the consumption of biofuels envisaged by the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (REDII) in the European Union, foreseeing in the 2021-2030 period of application of the plan, in the transport sector, the use of advanced biomethane in strong growth to reach a consumption of 800 ktoe per year in 2030 (about 1,1 billion m3) compared to 82 ktoe of advanced biomethane in 2020 (Gestore Servizi Energetici s.p.a). The estimates of this study concern the theoretical potential of advanced biomethane that can be produced in Italy by anaerobic digestion. The determined potential is theoretical as it doesn’t take into account a possible alternative use of the substrates, for example direct use (left in the field, combustion or composting), or of production chains of biomaterials and/or other biofuels (e.g. biopolymers, biolubricants, biodiesel, other intermediaries of chemical processes, etc.). The estimate on a territorial basis of the various residual fermentable biomasses carried out in this study, in terms of quantities and producibility of advanced biomethane from biogas upgrading, has the great advantage of containing that value of geographical allocation that will allow a more correct evaluation of the elements of logistics and integration of energy networks with the aim of providing stakeholders in the advanced biogasbiomethane chain with a database on which to formulate feasibility studies of an integrated production system. The total theoretical potential calculated with data updated to 2016 is estimated to be approximately 6,2 billion m3 per year of advanced biomethane, i.e. a value that has the same order of magnitude as natural gas of fossil origin produced in Italy in 2016 (6,0 billion of m3) and which is equal to approximately 8,7% of total consumption in the same year (70,9 billion m3).

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Valerio, V.; Braccio, G.;

    La normativa EN richiede che il biodiesel soddisfi determinate specifiche tecniche per poter essere immesso sul mercato. Tra i requisiti alcuni (ad esempio il contenuto di gliceridi, di metalli e acqua) dipendono dal tipo di processo impiegato, altri dipendono prevalentemente dalla composizione chimica dell’olio di partenza (densità, viscosità, numero di cetano e numero di iodio). In questo lavoro sono stati raccolti dati chimico-fisici di 80 oli vegetali, di differente tipo, per studiare la variazione delle proprietà in relazione alla composizione. L’analisi dei dati ha consentito di esprimere le proprietà chimico-fisiche in funzione di due sole variabili: numero medio di atomi di carbonio presenti negli acidi grassi e numero medio di doppi legami per acido grasso. Le variabili dipendenti, quali la viscosità cinematica, il numero di iodio, la densità e il numero di cetano, sono state espresse come funzioni di queste variabili indipendenti mediante regressioni lineari. Dalle relazioni sviluppate è stato poi ottenuto un grafico generale mediante il quale è possibile stimare la qualità del biodiesel ottenibile, una volta noti il numero la lunghezza media delle catene e il grado di insaturazione medio.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2010
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2010
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zimbardi, F.; Viola, E.; Arcieri, G.; Valerio, V.;

    Il pretrattamento di biomassa lignocellulosica per la sua trasformazione in biofuels e chemicals si basa su processi di trasformazione e separazione condotti a temperature relativamente elevate. Generalmente possono essere prodotte molecole aventi un effetto inibitorio rispetto ai successivi processi di fermentazione. Questi inibitori sono abbastanza facilmente allontanati mediante lavaggi con liquidi che però rimuovono anche i carboidrati solubili. Considerando che gli inibitori sono per lo più molecole a basso peso molecolare, è nata l’idea di provare ad allontanarli sfruttandone la volatilità. In questo lavoro è riportata una tecnica innovativa specificatamente messa a punto dagli autori per rimuovere gli inibitori formatisi nel pretrattamento di steam explosion di biomasse lignocellulosiche. Si è iniziato realizzando un proof of concept (TRL 2-3) con cui è stato dimostrato come fosse possibile detossificare un substrato lignocellulosico sfruttando la volatilità di alcune classi di inibitori. Il metodo è stato validato e perfezionato in laboratorio (TRL 4) e successivamente dimostrato e qualificato in un ambiente rilevante, anche sotto il profilo industriale, utilizzando una apparecchiatura commerciale operante a valle dell’impianto di pretrattamento steam explosion da 150 kg/h STELE installato nel Centro Ricerche ENEA della Trisaia (MT). É stato quindi raggiunto il TRL 8 in linea con quanto auspicato dal progetto PRIT (PRetrattamento Italiano), finanziato e realizzato nell’ambito del programma Industria 2015, nel cui contesto la ricerca è stata condotta. Sono stati ideati e dimostrate con successo 3 modalità operative: 1) Reattore a letto fisso consistente in un tubo di vetro incamiciato (termostatabile) all’interno del quale è confinato il materiale esploso contenente gli inibitori. 2) Reattore a letto fluidizzato consistente in un tubo di vetro simile al precedente ma oscillante. Infatti, contemporaneamente a un flusso di aria calda, il tubo è sottoposto a un’oscillazione verticale realizzata mediante aggancio con biella a un motore elettrico a numero di giri variabile. 3) Essiccatore pilota a letto fluidizzato. The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for its transformation first into carbohydrates and then from these, through fermentation processes, into biofuels and chemicals, often involves the use of high-temperature techniques. This produces compounds derived from degradation processes which are called "inhibitors" because they hinder the microbial fermentation processes. Generally, inhibitors are low molecular weight molecules, therefore volatile. Inhibitors are commonly removed by washing with water; however water also removes the soluble carbohydrates. In this work, a specific and innovative removal technique of these inhibitors is reported. The substrate is biomass pretreated by steam explosion. We started by creating a proof of concept (TRL 2-3) with which it was demonstrated how it was possible to detoxify a lignocellulosic substrate by exploiting the volatility of some classes of inhibitors. The method was validated and perfected in the laboratory (TRL 4) and subsequently demonstrated and qualified in a relevant environment, also from an industrial point of view, using commercial equipment operating continuously downstream of the 150 kg / h steam explosion pretreatment plant STELE installed in the ENEA Research Center in Trisaia (MT). A TRL 8 was therefore achieved, in line with what was hoped for by the PRIT (PRetrattamento Italiano) project, funded and implemented under the 2015 Industry program and in the context of which the research was conducted. Overall, 3 types of equipment have been designed, realized and tested: 1) Fixed bed reactor consisting of a jacketed glass tube (thermostatable) inside which the exploded material containing the inhibitors is confined. 2) Fluidized bed reactor consisting in a glass tube similar to the previous one but oscillating. In fact, at the same time as a flow of hot air, the tube is subjected to a vertical oscillation achieved by coupling with a connecting rod to an electric motor with a variable number of revolutions. 3) Pilot fluidized bed dryer.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tagliente, M. A.; Donatelli, A.; Caretto, F.;

    Nell’ambito del progetto TEX-STYLE– Nuovi tessuti intelligenti e sostenibili multi-settoriali per design creativo e stile made-in-Italy, finanziato nell’ambito dei Programmi Operativi Nazionali (PON 2014- 2020) FESR (Fondo Europeo di Sviluppo Regionale), è stato condotto uno studio focalizzato a delineare lo stato dell’arte esistente nel campo dei materiali impiegati come tessuti intelligenti, ovvero tessuti elettronici, e successivamente finalizzato alla selezione e definizione delle proprietà richieste a filati conduttivi da impiegare per la realizzazione di tessuti e rivestimenti intelligenti multifunzionali, integrati in prodotti innovativi che ampliano le opportunità di design creativo, massimizzando i concetti del Made in Italy. In particolare, i filati conduttivi selezionati sono state le fibre di carbonio proveniente da riciclo di materiali compositi a fine vita e/o da scarti di lavorazione, al fine di coniugare criteri di funzionalità dei materiali con il criterio di sostenibilità ambientale, promuovendo così l’impiego di materie prime seconde altrimenti destinati al confinamento in discarica. Il prodotto finale è un filato ibrido in cui la fibra di carbonio, in grado di assicurare proprietà di conduzione elettrica, affianca una fibra tradizionalmente impiegata nella realizzazione di tessuti (poliammide 6). Tale studio ha consentito di stabilire i target prestazionali da conseguire nel proseguo della sperimentazione in laboratorio, in termini di conducibilità elettrica dei filati ibridi, di densità lineare e di tenore della fibra nel filato/tessuto finale.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2023
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    Authors: Cignini, F.; Cosimi, E.; Cozza, V.; Ponzo, G.; +4 Authors

    Il presente rapporto illustra la progettazione e l’implementazione del portale K-COM (Knowledge COMmunication) per la gestione della conoscenza. La piattaforma, sviluppata nell’ambito del progetto ES-PA (Energia e Sostenibilità per la Pubblica Amministrazione), mira ad organizzare la conoscenza in “oggetti” (OK) all’interno di specifici “percorsi” (PK) riguardanti i temi dell’efficienza energetica. Per “oggetto” di conoscenza si intende una risorsa di diversa tipologia (audio, video, testuale, ecc.) inserita all’interno di una specifica tematica e identificata da una scheda informativa (Card). Alcune delle tematiche presenti in piattaforma riguardano gli Attestati di Prestazione Energetica (APE), i Piani di Azione per l’Energia Sostenibile ed il Clima (PAESC) e tecnologie per la lotta al cambiamento climatico. Il sistema è pensato per stabilire una comunicazione bidirezionale verso un’utenza variegata ed in continua evoluzione. Esso, inoltre, prevede meccanismi di feedback e profilazione utente. In linea con gli scopi del progetto, le categorie di utenza scelte sono state i decisori delle amministrazioni pubbliche, gli stakeholder ed il personale tecnico e amministrativo impiegato sia nel settore pubblico che privato. Le classi di utenza saranno ampliate, nelle successive fasi di esercizio, aggiungendo ulteriori temi di interesse. This report describes the design and implementation of the K-COM (Knowledge COMmunication) web portal for knowledge management. The platform, developed as part of the ES-PA (Energy and Sustainability for Public Administration) project, aims to organize knowledge into "objects" (OK) within specific "pathways" (KP) regarding energy efficiency issues. A knowledge "object" means a resource of different types (audio, video, textual, etc.) placed within a specific topic and identified by an information card (Card). Energy Performance Certificates (EPC), Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAP) and technologies to address climate change are just some of the topics on the platform. The system is designed to establish two-way communication towards a variegated and dynamic user base. It also provides for feedback mechanisms and user profiling. In line with the aims of the project, the user categories chosen were government decision makers, stakeholders and technical and administrative staff employed in both the public and private sectors. The user classes will be expanded in subsequent phases of the exercise by adding additional topics of interest.

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    Authors: Viola, E.; Cuna, D.; Zimbardi, F.; Barisano, D.; +4 Authors

    The seaweed Zostera marina and the alga Ulva armoricana have been investigated to test the effect of the steam explosion treatment on their conversion in biofuels, namely ethanol and methane. Zostera has been collected on the beach of Arcachon while Ulva in Britanny (both places in France). Several analytical methods have been tested and compared to analyse the raw materials and the derivate products. The composition has been determined in terms of carbohydrates (rhamnose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, fucose) sand and other impurities, ash, extractives (chlorophills) zosterine. Both Zostera and Ulva have been treated by steam esplosion and the best conditions were assessed to improve sugar extractability and cellulose hydrolysis by enzymes. An experimental design was set up and the relationships were obtained to for sugar recovery and glucose production as function of the SE severity in the range 160-180°C, 60-300 s. Zostera marina was investigated for the bioethanol production. This biomass contains over 30% of cellulose. The effect of the impregnation with oxalic acid on the quality of the produced substrate was evaluated. Tests of SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) were carried out at bench scale and the yield of ethanol production was optimized by varying the enzyme load, the amount of yeast and the solid to liquid ratio. Ethanol can be produced with yields over 90% by SHF with 6% of enzyme and 3 g/l of yeast. The best steam explosion treatment resulted that at 180°C, 300 s, with the addition of 20 g of oxalic acid per kg of raw Zostera. Ulva armoricana and Zostera marina were investigated for the methane production by means of anaerobic digestion. It was tested the effect of the steam explosion on the yield and the kinetics of biogas production. The overall biogas production of steam exploded Ulva and Zostera was higher than raw material. The steam explosion treatment positively affected the kinetics of the process. Biogas yields resulted different between Ulva and Zostera: 0.22 m3/kg versus 0.11 m3/kg; differences in the biogas composition were also detected. Cost analysis was carried out on the SE process applied on the Zostera and Ulva. It is based on data collected from batch (0.5kg/cycle) and continuous plant (350 kg/h, included of the fractionation section). The treatment cost has been evaluated as a function of the plant scale. Variable and fixed cost breakdown has been detailed in the case of a 1,000 and 10,000 t/y plant. Steam explosion process costs range between 0.25 and 0.27 €/kgDM in the case of a 10,000 t/y size plant.

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    Authors: E. VIOLA; V. VALERIO; F. ZIMBARDI; G. BRACCIO;

    Nei processi di produzione di biodiesel per transesterificazione di oli vegetali o grassi, il glicerolo è prodotto al tasso del 10%. Questo prodotto, negli ultimi anni, a causa della maggiore produzione di biodiesel, soffre di un eccesso di offerta sul mercato tradizionale cosmetico e farmaceutico, e molti produttori di biodiesel stanno valutando di considerarlo come refluo piuttosto che come coprodotto. In considerazione di ciò, col presente lavoro si è cercato di verificare l’eventualità di applicazioni alternative in campo energetico. In primo luogo è stata effettuata una caratterizzazione chimica del glicerolo grezzo, proveniente da un impianto industriale di produzione di biodiesel, e alcuni esperimenti sono stati condotti sulla sua purificazione mediante resine ioniche in miscela con etanolo. Nella seconda parte di questo lavoro è stato presentato lo stato dell'arte dell'uso energetico del glicerolo da biodiesel, verificando che la maggior parte degli studi sono sperimentazioni su scala laboratorio. In the processes of biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oils or fats, glycerol is produced at rate of 10%. This product in recent years, due to the increased production of biodiesel, is suffering from an oversupply on the traditional cosmetic and pharmaceutical market, and many producers of biodiesel are considering glycerol as waste rather than co-product. In view of this, with the present work, alternative applications of the glycerol in the energy field are been taken in account. First was performed a chemical characterization of crude glycerol, coming from an industrial plant of biodiesel production, and some experiments were carried out on its purification by means ionic resins in mixtures with ethanol. In the second part of this work was presented a state of the art of the energetic use of glycerol from biodiesel, verifying that most of the studies are laboratory-scale trials

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    Authors: ezilda costanzo;

    Buildings are the largest energy-consuming sector in the world, accounting for over one third of all carbon emissions. 75–90% of OECD building stock will still be in service by 2050. Yet the performance of most existing buildings is below current standards. Energy efficiency in buildings is a key focus in European and global climate and energy policies. This TRS aims to deliver a structured overview of research activities in this sector. Several results have arisen from R&D on cost-effectiveness and reliability of products and techniques, and from RD&D of “low-energy” and “nearly zero-energy” buildings for penetration in the market. Although progress is being made, deep renovation remains a priority if the potential for substantial savings and multiple related benefits is to be realised. A new approach to energy system integration and the extension of the research at district and community levels (taking in social, ICT, health and environmental issues) have started but still require supplementary developments. In this context storage is assuming a growing role in boosting energy efficiency, integrating renewable energy sources (RESs) and promoting interoperability between systems. The connections between individual buildings and district energy systems should be increasingly strengthened and the potential for flexibility in buildings within smart grids demonstrated, resulting in reduced energy consumption and lower CO2 emissions. Computational tools are necessary to take account of the complexity of buildings during design, assessment and operation. These should be supported by a series of targeted tools and solutions enabling better decision-making, plus education and awareness on available innovative techniques.

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    Authors: Celino, Massimo; Gusso, Michele; Giusepponi, Simone;

    In this paper we report results from a benchmark in which we compare the performances of three HPC clusters: CRESCO4 and CRESCO5 located in the Portci ENEA centre, and JURECA located in Juelich Supercomputing Centre.

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    Authors: Moreno, Angelo; Cigolotti, Viviana; Della Pietra, Massimiliano; Mcphail, Stephen J.;

    Reducing our carbon footprint is widely acknowledged as one of modern society’s top priorities, as well as building a sustainable economy based on knowledge and innovation for enduring opportunities of development. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) offer rich potential in these terms as a forward-looking and highly flexible way to reduce CO2 emissions providing more efficient and cleaner, greener energy, making use of both fossil and renewable sources. MCFCs are a key technology for stationary applications, especially in the size of hundreds to thousands of kilowatts, which is a very interesting power range in view of the increasing decentralization of energy supply and the increased need for high-quality power independent of the grid. After several years of research programs and extensive demonstration, MCFC-based systems are now appearing in commercial ventures of multiple megawatts, providing clean energy to commercial and small/mid-size industrial customers all over the world. Especially in this phase of early deployment, and with a view to stay at the forefront of smart solutions for the evolving energy paradigm, to improve the technology, increase reliability and reduce manufacturing costs, a lot of effort is still required from research and development to safeguard the relevancy and make real the enormous potential of MCFC solutions in the near and long-term future. The present report attempts to provide an accurate review of the current status of MCFC technology and deployment in the world. The basic principles will be introduced briefly and an overview of currently operational power plants will be set against a perspective of innovative system applications with great future market potential. The main stakeholders in this highly fertile field will be pointed out together with their core competences and contributions to the advancement of the technology. Le celle a combustibile a carbonati fusi (MCFC) costituiscono un modo altamente flessibile, di ricco potenziale e di avanguardia per ridurre le emissioni CO2, fornendo energia più efficiente, più pulita e più verde, facendo uso sia di fonti fossili che rinnovabili. MCFC è una tecnologia chiave per le applicazioni stazionarie, in particolar modo nelle dimensioni d’impianto che vanno dalle centinaia alle migliaia di kilowatt, spettro assai interessante considerato che la fornitura di energia elettrica va sempre più decentralizzandosi, e considerando la necessità di crescente indipendenza dalla rete. Dopo diversi anni di ricerca e dimostrazione, i sistemi MCFC emergono ora come applicazioni commerciali dell’ordine dei megawatt, fornendo energia pulita a clienti distribuiti in tutto il mondo. Particolarmente in questa prima fase di diffusione – e per rimanere all’avanguardia delle soluzioni ad alto livello che caratterizzano il paradigma energetico in evoluzione, per migliorare la tecnologia, per aumentarne l’affidabilità e per ridurne i costi di produzione – il ruolo della ricerca e sviluppo rimane di fondamentale importanza, per concretizzare l’enorme potenziale delle soluzioni MCFC sia a breve che a lungo termine. In tale ottica questo rapporto, in lingua inglese, fornisce una rassegna aggiornata dello status della tecnologia MCFC e la sua diffusione nel mondo. Vengono presentati brevemente i principi di funzionamento, le centrali già in esercizio e la prospettiva delle applicazioni innovative del sistema con maggiore potenziale di mercato per il futuro. Gli attori principali del settore vengono indicati assieme alle loro competenze di base e ai loro contributi al progresso della tecnologia.

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    Authors: Pierro, N.; Giocoli, A.; De Bari, I.; Agostini, A.; +2 Authors

    Il Piano Nazionale Integrato per l’Energia e il Clima del 2019, assegna un ruolo prioritario al gas rinnovabile al fine del raggiungimento dei target di immissione al consumo di biocarburanti previsto dalla direttiva sulla promozione dell'uso dell'energia da fonti rinnovabili -RED II- in Unione Europea. In particolare si prevede nell’arco temporale 2021-2030 di applicazione del piano, nel settore trasporti, un utilizzo di biometano avanzato in forte crescita per arrivare nel 2030 a un consumo pari a 800 ktep annui (circa 1,1 miliardi di m3) rispetto ai 82 ktep di biometano avanzato immesso al consumo nel 2020 (Gestore Servizi Energetici s.p.a). Le stime di questo studio riguardano il potenziale teorico di biometano avanzato producibile in Italia da digestione anaerobica. Il potenziale determinato è teorico in quanto non tiene conto di un possibile uso alternativo dei substrati, quale ad esempio uso diretto (lasciato in campo, combustione o compostaggio), o di filiere di produzione di prodotti biobased(e.g. biopolimeri, biolubrificanti, biodiesel, altri intermediari di processi chimici, etc.) e/o di altri biocarburanti. La stima su base territoriale delle varie biomasse residuali fermentabili realizzata in questo studio, in termini quantitativi e di producibilità di biometano avanzato da upgrading del biogas, ha il grande vantaggio di contenere quel valore di allocazione geografica che permetterà una più corretta valutazione degli elementi di logistica ed integrazione delle reti energetiche con l’obiettivo di fornire agli stakeholders della filiera biogas-biometano avanzato una base dati su cui formulare studi di fattibilità di un sistema integrato di produzione. Il potenziale totale teorico calcolato con dati aggiornati al 2016 è valutato pari a circa 6,2 miliardi di m3 all’anno di biometano avanzato, ovvero un valore che ha lo stesso ordine di grandezza del gas naturale di origine fossile prodotta in Italia nel 2016 (6,0 miliardi di m3) e che è pari a circa l’8,7% dei consumi totali dello stesso anno (70,9 miliardi di m3). The Integrated National Plan for Energy and Climate (PNIEC) of 2019, assigns a priority role to renewable gas in order to achieve the targets for injection to the consumption of biofuels envisaged by the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (REDII) in the European Union, foreseeing in the 2021-2030 period of application of the plan, in the transport sector, the use of advanced biomethane in strong growth to reach a consumption of 800 ktoe per year in 2030 (about 1,1 billion m3) compared to 82 ktoe of advanced biomethane in 2020 (Gestore Servizi Energetici s.p.a). The estimates of this study concern the theoretical potential of advanced biomethane that can be produced in Italy by anaerobic digestion. The determined potential is theoretical as it doesn’t take into account a possible alternative use of the substrates, for example direct use (left in the field, combustion or composting), or of production chains of biomaterials and/or other biofuels (e.g. biopolymers, biolubricants, biodiesel, other intermediaries of chemical processes, etc.). The estimate on a territorial basis of the various residual fermentable biomasses carried out in this study, in terms of quantities and producibility of advanced biomethane from biogas upgrading, has the great advantage of containing that value of geographical allocation that will allow a more correct evaluation of the elements of logistics and integration of energy networks with the aim of providing stakeholders in the advanced biogasbiomethane chain with a database on which to formulate feasibility studies of an integrated production system. The total theoretical potential calculated with data updated to 2016 is estimated to be approximately 6,2 billion m3 per year of advanced biomethane, i.e. a value that has the same order of magnitude as natural gas of fossil origin produced in Italy in 2016 (6,0 billion of m3) and which is equal to approximately 8,7% of total consumption in the same year (70,9 billion m3).

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    Authors: Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Valerio, V.; Braccio, G.;

    La normativa EN richiede che il biodiesel soddisfi determinate specifiche tecniche per poter essere immesso sul mercato. Tra i requisiti alcuni (ad esempio il contenuto di gliceridi, di metalli e acqua) dipendono dal tipo di processo impiegato, altri dipendono prevalentemente dalla composizione chimica dell’olio di partenza (densità, viscosità, numero di cetano e numero di iodio). In questo lavoro sono stati raccolti dati chimico-fisici di 80 oli vegetali, di differente tipo, per studiare la variazione delle proprietà in relazione alla composizione. L’analisi dei dati ha consentito di esprimere le proprietà chimico-fisiche in funzione di due sole variabili: numero medio di atomi di carbonio presenti negli acidi grassi e numero medio di doppi legami per acido grasso. Le variabili dipendenti, quali la viscosità cinematica, il numero di iodio, la densità e il numero di cetano, sono state espresse come funzioni di queste variabili indipendenti mediante regressioni lineari. Dalle relazioni sviluppate è stato poi ottenuto un grafico generale mediante il quale è possibile stimare la qualità del biodiesel ottenibile, una volta noti il numero la lunghezza media delle catene e il grado di insaturazione medio.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2010
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2010
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    Authors: Zimbardi, F.; Viola, E.; Arcieri, G.; Valerio, V.;

    Il pretrattamento di biomassa lignocellulosica per la sua trasformazione in biofuels e chemicals si basa su processi di trasformazione e separazione condotti a temperature relativamente elevate. Generalmente possono essere prodotte molecole aventi un effetto inibitorio rispetto ai successivi processi di fermentazione. Questi inibitori sono abbastanza facilmente allontanati mediante lavaggi con liquidi che però rimuovono anche i carboidrati solubili. Considerando che gli inibitori sono per lo più molecole a basso peso molecolare, è nata l’idea di provare ad allontanarli sfruttandone la volatilità. In questo lavoro è riportata una tecnica innovativa specificatamente messa a punto dagli autori per rimuovere gli inibitori formatisi nel pretrattamento di steam explosion di biomasse lignocellulosiche. Si è iniziato realizzando un proof of concept (TRL 2-3) con cui è stato dimostrato come fosse possibile detossificare un substrato lignocellulosico sfruttando la volatilità di alcune classi di inibitori. Il metodo è stato validato e perfezionato in laboratorio (TRL 4) e successivamente dimostrato e qualificato in un ambiente rilevante, anche sotto il profilo industriale, utilizzando una apparecchiatura commerciale operante a valle dell’impianto di pretrattamento steam explosion da 150 kg/h STELE installato nel Centro Ricerche ENEA della Trisaia (MT). É stato quindi raggiunto il TRL 8 in linea con quanto auspicato dal progetto PRIT (PRetrattamento Italiano), finanziato e realizzato nell’ambito del programma Industria 2015, nel cui contesto la ricerca è stata condotta. Sono stati ideati e dimostrate con successo 3 modalità operative: 1) Reattore a letto fisso consistente in un tubo di vetro incamiciato (termostatabile) all’interno del quale è confinato il materiale esploso contenente gli inibitori. 2) Reattore a letto fluidizzato consistente in un tubo di vetro simile al precedente ma oscillante. Infatti, contemporaneamente a un flusso di aria calda, il tubo è sottoposto a un’oscillazione verticale realizzata mediante aggancio con biella a un motore elettrico a numero di giri variabile. 3) Essiccatore pilota a letto fluidizzato. The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for its transformation first into carbohydrates and then from these, through fermentation processes, into biofuels and chemicals, often involves the use of high-temperature techniques. This produces compounds derived from degradation processes which are called "inhibitors" because they hinder the microbial fermentation processes. Generally, inhibitors are low molecular weight molecules, therefore volatile. Inhibitors are commonly removed by washing with water; however water also removes the soluble carbohydrates. In this work, a specific and innovative removal technique of these inhibitors is reported. The substrate is biomass pretreated by steam explosion. We started by creating a proof of concept (TRL 2-3) with which it was demonstrated how it was possible to detoxify a lignocellulosic substrate by exploiting the volatility of some classes of inhibitors. The method was validated and perfected in the laboratory (TRL 4) and subsequently demonstrated and qualified in a relevant environment, also from an industrial point of view, using commercial equipment operating continuously downstream of the 150 kg / h steam explosion pretreatment plant STELE installed in the ENEA Research Center in Trisaia (MT). A TRL 8 was therefore achieved, in line with what was hoped for by the PRIT (PRetrattamento Italiano) project, funded and implemented under the 2015 Industry program and in the context of which the research was conducted. Overall, 3 types of equipment have been designed, realized and tested: 1) Fixed bed reactor consisting of a jacketed glass tube (thermostatable) inside which the exploded material containing the inhibitors is confined. 2) Fluidized bed reactor consisting in a glass tube similar to the previous one but oscillating. In fact, at the same time as a flow of hot air, the tube is subjected to a vertical oscillation achieved by coupling with a connecting rod to an electric motor with a variable number of revolutions. 3) Pilot fluidized bed dryer.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    Authors: Tagliente, M. A.; Donatelli, A.; Caretto, F.;

    Nell’ambito del progetto TEX-STYLE– Nuovi tessuti intelligenti e sostenibili multi-settoriali per design creativo e stile made-in-Italy, finanziato nell’ambito dei Programmi Operativi Nazionali (PON 2014- 2020) FESR (Fondo Europeo di Sviluppo Regionale), è stato condotto uno studio focalizzato a delineare lo stato dell’arte esistente nel campo dei materiali impiegati come tessuti intelligenti, ovvero tessuti elettronici, e successivamente finalizzato alla selezione e definizione delle proprietà richieste a filati conduttivi da impiegare per la realizzazione di tessuti e rivestimenti intelligenti multifunzionali, integrati in prodotti innovativi che ampliano le opportunità di design creativo, massimizzando i concetti del Made in Italy. In particolare, i filati conduttivi selezionati sono state le fibre di carbonio proveniente da riciclo di materiali compositi a fine vita e/o da scarti di lavorazione, al fine di coniugare criteri di funzionalità dei materiali con il criterio di sostenibilità ambientale, promuovendo così l’impiego di materie prime seconde altrimenti destinati al confinamento in discarica. Il prodotto finale è un filato ibrido in cui la fibra di carbonio, in grado di assicurare proprietà di conduzione elettrica, affianca una fibra tradizionalmente impiegata nella realizzazione di tessuti (poliammide 6). Tale studio ha consentito di stabilire i target prestazionali da conseguire nel proseguo della sperimentazione in laboratorio, in termini di conducibilità elettrica dei filati ibridi, di densità lineare e di tenore della fibra nel filato/tessuto finale.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2023
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2023
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    Authors: Cignini, F.; Cosimi, E.; Cozza, V.; Ponzo, G.; +4 Authors

    Il presente rapporto illustra la progettazione e l’implementazione del portale K-COM (Knowledge COMmunication) per la gestione della conoscenza. La piattaforma, sviluppata nell’ambito del progetto ES-PA (Energia e Sostenibilità per la Pubblica Amministrazione), mira ad organizzare la conoscenza in “oggetti” (OK) all’interno di specifici “percorsi” (PK) riguardanti i temi dell’efficienza energetica. Per “oggetto” di conoscenza si intende una risorsa di diversa tipologia (audio, video, testuale, ecc.) inserita all’interno di una specifica tematica e identificata da una scheda informativa (Card). Alcune delle tematiche presenti in piattaforma riguardano gli Attestati di Prestazione Energetica (APE), i Piani di Azione per l’Energia Sostenibile ed il Clima (PAESC) e tecnologie per la lotta al cambiamento climatico. Il sistema è pensato per stabilire una comunicazione bidirezionale verso un’utenza variegata ed in continua evoluzione. Esso, inoltre, prevede meccanismi di feedback e profilazione utente. In linea con gli scopi del progetto, le categorie di utenza scelte sono state i decisori delle amministrazioni pubbliche, gli stakeholder ed il personale tecnico e amministrativo impiegato sia nel settore pubblico che privato. Le classi di utenza saranno ampliate, nelle successive fasi di esercizio, aggiungendo ulteriori temi di interesse. This report describes the design and implementation of the K-COM (Knowledge COMmunication) web portal for knowledge management. The platform, developed as part of the ES-PA (Energy and Sustainability for Public Administration) project, aims to organize knowledge into "objects" (OK) within specific "pathways" (KP) regarding energy efficiency issues. A knowledge "object" means a resource of different types (audio, video, textual, etc.) placed within a specific topic and identified by an information card (Card). Energy Performance Certificates (EPC), Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAP) and technologies to address climate change are just some of the topics on the platform. The system is designed to establish two-way communication towards a variegated and dynamic user base. It also provides for feedback mechanisms and user profiling. In line with the aims of the project, the user categories chosen were government decision makers, stakeholders and technical and administrative staff employed in both the public and private sectors. The user classes will be expanded in subsequent phases of the exercise by adding additional topics of interest.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2023
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      Other ORP type . 2023
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    Authors: Viola, E.; Cuna, D.; Zimbardi, F.; Barisano, D.; +4 Authors

    The seaweed Zostera marina and the alga Ulva armoricana have been investigated to test the effect of the steam explosion treatment on their conversion in biofuels, namely ethanol and methane. Zostera has been collected on the beach of Arcachon while Ulva in Britanny (both places in France). Several analytical methods have been tested and compared to analyse the raw materials and the derivate products. The composition has been determined in terms of carbohydrates (rhamnose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, fucose) sand and other impurities, ash, extractives (chlorophills) zosterine. Both Zostera and Ulva have been treated by steam esplosion and the best conditions were assessed to improve sugar extractability and cellulose hydrolysis by enzymes. An experimental design was set up and the relationships were obtained to for sugar recovery and glucose production as function of the SE severity in the range 160-180°C, 60-300 s. Zostera marina was investigated for the bioethanol production. This biomass contains over 30% of cellulose. The effect of the impregnation with oxalic acid on the quality of the produced substrate was evaluated. Tests of SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation) were carried out at bench scale and the yield of ethanol production was optimized by varying the enzyme load, the amount of yeast and the solid to liquid ratio. Ethanol can be produced with yields over 90% by SHF with 6% of enzyme and 3 g/l of yeast. The best steam explosion treatment resulted that at 180°C, 300 s, with the addition of 20 g of oxalic acid per kg of raw Zostera. Ulva armoricana and Zostera marina were investigated for the methane production by means of anaerobic digestion. It was tested the effect of the steam explosion on the yield and the kinetics of biogas production. The overall biogas production of steam exploded Ulva and Zostera was higher than raw material. The steam explosion treatment positively affected the kinetics of the process. Biogas yields resulted different between Ulva and Zostera: 0.22 m3/kg versus 0.11 m3/kg; differences in the biogas composition were also detected. Cost analysis was carried out on the SE process applied on the Zostera and Ulva. It is based on data collected from batch (0.5kg/cycle) and continuous plant (350 kg/h, included of the fractionation section). The treatment cost has been evaluated as a function of the plant scale. Variable and fixed cost breakdown has been detailed in the case of a 1,000 and 10,000 t/y plant. Steam explosion process costs range between 0.25 and 0.27 €/kgDM in the case of a 10,000 t/y size plant.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2009
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2009
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    Authors: E. VIOLA; V. VALERIO; F. ZIMBARDI; G. BRACCIO;

    Nei processi di produzione di biodiesel per transesterificazione di oli vegetali o grassi, il glicerolo è prodotto al tasso del 10%. Questo prodotto, negli ultimi anni, a causa della maggiore produzione di biodiesel, soffre di un eccesso di offerta sul mercato tradizionale cosmetico e farmaceutico, e molti produttori di biodiesel stanno valutando di considerarlo come refluo piuttosto che come coprodotto. In considerazione di ciò, col presente lavoro si è cercato di verificare l’eventualità di applicazioni alternative in campo energetico. In primo luogo è stata effettuata una caratterizzazione chimica del glicerolo grezzo, proveniente da un impianto industriale di produzione di biodiesel, e alcuni esperimenti sono stati condotti sulla sua purificazione mediante resine ioniche in miscela con etanolo. Nella seconda parte di questo lavoro è stato presentato lo stato dell'arte dell'uso energetico del glicerolo da biodiesel, verificando che la maggior parte degli studi sono sperimentazioni su scala laboratorio. In the processes of biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oils or fats, glycerol is produced at rate of 10%. This product in recent years, due to the increased production of biodiesel, is suffering from an oversupply on the traditional cosmetic and pharmaceutical market, and many producers of biodiesel are considering glycerol as waste rather than co-product. In view of this, with the present work, alternative applications of the glycerol in the energy field are been taken in account. First was performed a chemical characterization of crude glycerol, coming from an industrial plant of biodiesel production, and some experiments were carried out on its purification by means ionic resins in mixtures with ethanol. In the second part of this work was presented a state of the art of the energetic use of glycerol from biodiesel, verifying that most of the studies are laboratory-scale trials

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2011
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2011
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2011
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2011
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    Authors: ezilda costanzo;

    Buildings are the largest energy-consuming sector in the world, accounting for over one third of all carbon emissions. 75–90% of OECD building stock will still be in service by 2050. Yet the performance of most existing buildings is below current standards. Energy efficiency in buildings is a key focus in European and global climate and energy policies. This TRS aims to deliver a structured overview of research activities in this sector. Several results have arisen from R&D on cost-effectiveness and reliability of products and techniques, and from RD&D of “low-energy” and “nearly zero-energy” buildings for penetration in the market. Although progress is being made, deep renovation remains a priority if the potential for substantial savings and multiple related benefits is to be realised. A new approach to energy system integration and the extension of the research at district and community levels (taking in social, ICT, health and environmental issues) have started but still require supplementary developments. In this context storage is assuming a growing role in boosting energy efficiency, integrating renewable energy sources (RESs) and promoting interoperability between systems. The connections between individual buildings and district energy systems should be increasingly strengthened and the potential for flexibility in buildings within smart grids demonstrated, resulting in reduced energy consumption and lower CO2 emissions. Computational tools are necessary to take account of the complexity of buildings during design, assessment and operation. These should be supported by a series of targeted tools and solutions enabling better decision-making, plus education and awareness on available innovative techniques.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2014
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
    ENEA Open Archive
    Other ORP type . 2014
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2014
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
      ENEA Open Archive
      Other ORP type . 2014
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive