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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Selena Ahmed; Shauna M. Downs; Jessica Fanzo;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: CIHR

    The food system is responsible for some of society's most pressing sustainability challenges. Dietary guidelines are one policy tool to help address the multiple sustainability challenges associated with food systems through dietary recommendations that better support environmental and human well-being. This article develops and applies a sustainability framework scoring tool comprised of four key dimensions (environmental, economic, human health, and sociocultural and political) and 32 sub-dimensions of sustainable food systems for the analysis and modification of national dietary guidelines. Two coders pilot tested the framework to quantify the occurrence of sustainability dimensions and sub-dimensions in national and regional dietary guidelines of 12 randomly selected high-income and upper-middle income countries including Albania, Australia, Brazil, the Grenadines, Grenada, Qatar, Netherlands, Nordic Countries, St. Vincent, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Sustainability Dimension Scores (SDS) were calculated as a percentage of the occurrence of the eight sub-dimensions comprising each sustainability dimension and Total Sustainability Scores (TSS) were calculated as a percentage of the occurrence of the 32 sub-dimensions in each guideline. Inter-rater reliability of TSS and SDS indicated high validity of applying the sustainability framework for dietary guidelines. SDS varied between the four sustainability dimensions with human health being the most represented in the dietary guidelines examined, as hypothesized (average SDS score of 83%; range from 50 to 100%). Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were found in mean SDS between the four sustainability dimensions. Overall, results indicate that the ecological (average SDS score of 31%; range from 0 to 100%) economic (average SDS score of 29%; range from 0 to 100%), and socio-cultural and political (average SDS score of 44%; range of 0–100%) dimensions of sustainability are underrepresented in the examined national dietary guidelines with significant differences in SDS between guidelines (p < 0.0001). TSS varied by country between 12 and 74% with a mean score of 36% (± 20%). Brazil had the highest TSS (74%) followed by Australia (69%). The sustainability framework presented here can be applied by policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to identify gaps and opportunities to modify national dietary guidelines and associated programs for transforming food systems through diets that support planetary health.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Süleyman Ulupinar; Serhat Özbay; Cebrail Gençoğlu; Emerson Franchini; Necip Fazıl Kishalı; İzzet Ince;

    Abstract Background/objective This study aims to compare the effect of sprint distance and repetition number on performance, physiological responses, and energy systems contributions. Methods Eighteen male university league soccer players (age: 19.9 ± 1.6 years, height: 177.9 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 72.4 ± 6.3 kg, percentage body fat: 8.9 ± 1.8, training experience: 7.4 ± 1.6 years) completed two different repeated sprint protocols: 20 × 20 m (20 × 20) and 10 × 40 m (10 × 40) with 15s and 30s rest intervals, respectively. Oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured during the rest, exercise, and recovery phases. Rest and peak blood lactate concentrations were determined. Using VO2 and lactate values, the energy system contributions were calculated using a mono-exponential model and mathematical calculations. Energy systems contributions and total energy expenditure (TEE) were calculated both for the entire protocol (overall) and for the sprints only. Results Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), peak and mean heart rate (HR) responses were significantly higher in the 20 × 20 whereas lactate response was higher in the 10 × 40. TEE was similar between the 10 × 40 (586.3 ± 60.8 kJ) and 20 × 20 (595.6 ± 57.5 kJ). For overall estimations, the 10 × 40 and 20 × 20 presented similar results of oxidative (47.5 ± 5.4 vs 45.7 ± 5.1 kJ min−1) and phosphagen (44.7 ± 5.4 vs (42.9 ± 4.8 kJ min−1) systems contributions whereas glycolytic contribution was higher in the 10 × 40 (15.5 ± 2.2 vs 12.8 ± 2.3 kJ min−1). For sprints only estimation, the phosphagen (257.6 ± 31.5 vs 225.2 ± 28.2 kJ min−1), glycolytic (89.4 ± 13.4 vs 67.3 ± 12.5 kJ min−1), and oxidative (76.9 ± 6.9 vs 72.0 ± 7.9 2 kJ min−1) systems contributions were higher in the 10 × 40. Conclusions Although HR and RPE responses were higher in the 20 × 20, phosphagen (during sprints) and glycolytic (during both sprints and overall protocol) were higher in the 10 × 40 protocol. Therefore, the 10 × 40 protocol seems more reasonable for developing or evaluating the anaerobic systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xinxian Qi; Xianjin Huang; Ya-ya Song; Xiaowei Chuai; Changyan Wu; Danyang Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract As the largest river in Asia with masses of population and industries along the riverside, the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) produces tremendous carbon emissions. However, trade-induced environmental impacts of such a megaregion with multiple geographic linkages are always neglected in the river’s environmental policies, even as it is expected to change dynamically in the context of a transition period. By incorporating the megaregion scale into the multiregional input and output framework, our main findings are as follows: (1) The YREB region transformed from a traditional river basin to a comprehensive consumption-oriented economic belt. The proportions of the YREB region’s embodied emissions in local and international linkages are decreasing, while the proportions of that in cross reach and interregional linkages are increasing; (2) The YREB region exacerbates the gap between the north and the south by importing carbon emissions from the carbon-intensive north and exporting to the south with low emission intensity; (3) The Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) effect held in 2002 in the cross reach linkage, while disappeared in 2012 due to changes in development and consumption patterns. Through structural decomposition analysis, this study detects driving factors of embodied emissions changes in multi linkages, and provides coordinating mitigation actions for the environmental governance of large river basins with comprehensive economic linkages.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jingli Zhao; Pengfei Wang; Yue Su;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In mining of inclined coal seams in Tangshan coal mine of Kailuan group, gateways on either end of a panel were both typically located along the floor and a gateway pillar between adjoining panels was left unmined between adjacent panels to ensure stability, thus forming a planar mining system. According to the practice, however, it turned out that this conventional mining system has long-standing problems, such as face end support problems, coal bumps, sliding of mining equipment downhill, spontaneous combustions, support problems in development entries, etc. In view of this situation and based on the No. Y294 panel, this paper analyzes an innovative mining technology in which the gateways on either end of a panel are located at different heights within the coal seam. For the adjacent panel, the gate development may be superposed on the development entry of the previous panel or may be offset with respect to it. Field data shows that the split-level layout of the longwall panel plays an effective role in control of overall stability of mining equipment in inclined coal seams. Physical modeling demonstrates that the new technology has many advantages in ground control. Under the condition without a pillar, development entry adjacent to the new panel is located in the de-stressed zone and stress concentration is significantly reduced with associated reduction in coal bumps, bursts and support problems which means less support and maintenance requirement and cost. Compared with the conventional rectangular pillar, the gateway pillar width in this new technology is effectively reduced when pillars have to be left unmined. Roof strata behavior and features are analyzed. Corresponding operations in the field are introduced in detail.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Erza Genatrika; Visda Nila Happy Laksari; Tjiptasurasa Tjiptasurasa;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels due to impaired insulin secretion or increased insulin resistance. The study was performed to investigate the blood glucose lowering effect of Musa acuminata Colla fruit peel (MACFP) ethanol extract in experimentally induced diabetic rats. 25 rats were divided into five groups, i.e negative control group (0.5% NaCMC), positive control group (glibenclamide), and treatment group of MACFP ethanol extract with dose 250, 375, and 500 mg/kg body weight (mg/kg BW). The blood sample was taken from the lateral vein of the tail, and then blood glucose level was observed on 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The results provide information that MACFP ethanol extract with dose 250, 375, and 500 mg/kg BW have the same effect with a positive control (glibenclamide) in lowering blood glucose level on diabetic rats (p>0,05). MACFP ethanol extract with dose 500 mg/kg BW had the highest percentage of decrease in blood glucose level (42,62%), followed by doses 375 mg/kg BW (37,26%) and 250 mg/kg BW (24,12%).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cheol Min Lee; Tae-Sung Kwon; Sung-Soo Kim; Go-Eun Park; Jong-Hwan Lim;
    Publisher: , National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA). Production and hosting by Elsevier.

    AbstractAbundance and diversity of arthropods were projected according to climate warming in South Korea. The taxa highly linked with temperature were selected for the projection. The values of abundance and richness were estimated using the mean values of abundance and richness in each temperature range. Temperature changes were based on the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 and RCP 8.5, and the abundance and richness during two periods (2011 -2015, 2056 -2065) were projected. From these projected results, change of other common taxa (> 1% occurrence) were qualitatively predicted (i.e., decrease or increase). The projections showed that 45 of a total of 73 taxa will increase, 6 will change a little and 24 will decrease: the number of taxa that were expected to increase was two times more than the number of taxa that were expected to decrease. However, the overall abundance and diversity of arthropods were expected to decline as the temperature rises.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lianglong Song; Xin Shi; Tong Guo; Wenqian Zheng;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    A novel self-centering prestressed concrete (SCPC) pier with external energy dissipators (EDs) has been recently proposed to minimize the structural damage and residual deformations, and enhance the corrosion-resistant capability. In the SCPC pier with external EDs, internal post-tensioned basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) tendons are used to provide the self-centering ability, and the energy dissipation is realized through the external aluminum bars. Previous cyclic load tests of 1/3-scaled specimens showed that the SCPC pier with external EDs had desirable self-centering and energy dissipation capacities. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is developed using the ANSYS software. The FE model can capture the complex behavior of the proposed pier, such as gap opening/closing at the pier-foundation interface, energy dissipation of EDs, and self-centering capacity. Good agreement is observed between the numerical and experimental results, demonstrating the accuracy of the developed FE model. This will enable the parametric studies on the seismic performance of the SCPC pier with external EDs in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheikh Adil Edrisi; Vishal Tripathi; Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil Abhilash;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    The successful utilization of marginal and degraded lands for biomass and bioenergy production depends upon various factors such as climatic conditions, the adaptive traits of the tree species and their growth rate and respective belowground responses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance of a bioenergy tree (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) grown in marginal and degraded land of the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India and to analyze the effect of D. sissoo plantations on soil quality improvement over the study years. For this, a soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on principal component analysis (PCA) to understand the effect of D. sissoo plantations on belowground responses. PCA results showed that among the studied soil variables, bulk density (BD), moisture content (MC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil urease activity (SUA) are the key variables critically influencing the growth of D. sissoo. The SQI was found in an increasing order with the growth period of D. sissoo. (i.e., from 0.419 during the first year to 0.579 in the fourth year). A strong correlation was also observed between the growth attributes (diameter at breast height, R2 = 0.870 0.01). Therefore, the developed SQI can be used as key indicator for monitoring the restoration potential of D. sissoo growing in marginal and degraded lands and also for adopting suitable interventions to further improve soil quality for multipurpose land restoration programs, thereby attaining land degradation neutrality and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. and plant height, R2 = 0.861) and the soil quality (p <

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abbas El-Zein; Tanvir Ahmed; Fahim N. Tonmoy;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Assessments of vulnerability to flooding can generate useful data for planners and policy makers. To the best of the authors knowledge, no flood-vulnerability study has combined geophysical modelling of floods with socio-economic assessments of vulnerability at finer municipal or household scale. In addition, the extent to which vulnerability assessments actually feed into flood adaptation policies remains largely unknown. A new flood vulnerability index, and associated methodology, is proposed, combining high-resolution hydrological-hydraulic modelling with built-environment and socio-economic indicators at the smallest spatial scale at which socio-economic data is available. The main advantage of the methodology is its ability to incorporate place-specific data, hence yielding more refined simulations of floods and the capacity to make projections into climate futures at local scale. The index is built and applied to the inter-city suburb of Marrickville in Sydney and used to assess the effects of future climate change on vulnerability mapping in the suburb. Finally, the results of the assessment are presented to, and discussed with, the local government authority responsible for implementing flood adaptation policies for Marrickville. Locally specific modelling of floods, combined with socio-economic and built-environment mapping, has yielded a rich set of information on flood vulnerability and significant variability within a single suburb. Flood duration is projected to increase by more than 100% under some climate change scenarios, as a result of reduced drainage caused by sea level rise. Feedback from municipal council has highlighted the potential usefulness of the knowledge generated by the assessment, especially for emergency services.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kanwaldeep Singh; Sukhpal Singh; Gurmel Singh;
    Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

    Six concrete mixtures were prepared with 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of flyash replacing the cement content and having constant water to cement ratio. The testing specimens were casted and their mechanical parameters were tested experimentally in accordance with the Indian standards. Results of mechanical parameters show their improvement with age of the specimens and results of radiation parameters show no significant effect of flyash substitution on mass attenuation coefficient.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Energy Research. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
15,071 Research products, page 1 of 1,508
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Selena Ahmed; Shauna M. Downs; Jessica Fanzo;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: CIHR

    The food system is responsible for some of society's most pressing sustainability challenges. Dietary guidelines are one policy tool to help address the multiple sustainability challenges associated with food systems through dietary recommendations that better support environmental and human well-being. This article develops and applies a sustainability framework scoring tool comprised of four key dimensions (environmental, economic, human health, and sociocultural and political) and 32 sub-dimensions of sustainable food systems for the analysis and modification of national dietary guidelines. Two coders pilot tested the framework to quantify the occurrence of sustainability dimensions and sub-dimensions in national and regional dietary guidelines of 12 randomly selected high-income and upper-middle income countries including Albania, Australia, Brazil, the Grenadines, Grenada, Qatar, Netherlands, Nordic Countries, St. Vincent, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Sustainability Dimension Scores (SDS) were calculated as a percentage of the occurrence of the eight sub-dimensions comprising each sustainability dimension and Total Sustainability Scores (TSS) were calculated as a percentage of the occurrence of the 32 sub-dimensions in each guideline. Inter-rater reliability of TSS and SDS indicated high validity of applying the sustainability framework for dietary guidelines. SDS varied between the four sustainability dimensions with human health being the most represented in the dietary guidelines examined, as hypothesized (average SDS score of 83%; range from 50 to 100%). Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were found in mean SDS between the four sustainability dimensions. Overall, results indicate that the ecological (average SDS score of 31%; range from 0 to 100%) economic (average SDS score of 29%; range from 0 to 100%), and socio-cultural and political (average SDS score of 44%; range of 0–100%) dimensions of sustainability are underrepresented in the examined national dietary guidelines with significant differences in SDS between guidelines (p < 0.0001). TSS varied by country between 12 and 74% with a mean score of 36% (± 20%). Brazil had the highest TSS (74%) followed by Australia (69%). The sustainability framework presented here can be applied by policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to identify gaps and opportunities to modify national dietary guidelines and associated programs for transforming food systems through diets that support planetary health.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Süleyman Ulupinar; Serhat Özbay; Cebrail Gençoğlu; Emerson Franchini; Necip Fazıl Kishalı; İzzet Ince;

    Abstract Background/objective This study aims to compare the effect of sprint distance and repetition number on performance, physiological responses, and energy systems contributions. Methods Eighteen male university league soccer players (age: 19.9 ± 1.6 years, height: 177.9 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 72.4 ± 6.3 kg, percentage body fat: 8.9 ± 1.8, training experience: 7.4 ± 1.6 years) completed two different repeated sprint protocols: 20 × 20 m (20 × 20) and 10 × 40 m (10 × 40) with 15s and 30s rest intervals, respectively. Oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured during the rest, exercise, and recovery phases. Rest and peak blood lactate concentrations were determined. Using VO2 and lactate values, the energy system contributions were calculated using a mono-exponential model and mathematical calculations. Energy systems contributions and total energy expenditure (TEE) were calculated both for the entire protocol (overall) and for the sprints only. Results Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), peak and mean heart rate (HR) responses were significantly higher in the 20 × 20 whereas lactate response was higher in the 10 × 40. TEE was similar between the 10 × 40 (586.3 ± 60.8 kJ) and 20 × 20 (595.6 ± 57.5 kJ). For overall estimations, the 10 × 40 and 20 × 20 presented similar results of oxidative (47.5 ± 5.4 vs 45.7 ± 5.1 kJ min−1) and phosphagen (44.7 ± 5.4 vs (42.9 ± 4.8 kJ min−1) systems contributions whereas glycolytic contribution was higher in the 10 × 40 (15.5 ± 2.2 vs 12.8 ± 2.3 kJ min−1). For sprints only estimation, the phosphagen (257.6 ± 31.5 vs 225.2 ± 28.2 kJ min−1), glycolytic (89.4 ± 13.4 vs 67.3 ± 12.5 kJ min−1), and oxidative (76.9 ± 6.9 vs 72.0 ± 7.9 2 kJ min−1) systems contributions were higher in the 10 × 40. Conclusions Although HR and RPE responses were higher in the 20 × 20, phosphagen (during sprints) and glycolytic (during both sprints and overall protocol) were higher in the 10 × 40 protocol. Therefore, the 10 × 40 protocol seems more reasonable for developing or evaluating the anaerobic systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xinxian Qi; Xianjin Huang; Ya-ya Song; Xiaowei Chuai; Changyan Wu; Danyang Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract As the largest river in Asia with masses of population and industries along the riverside, the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) produces tremendous carbon emissions. However, trade-induced environmental impacts of such a megaregion with multiple geographic linkages are always neglected in the river’s environmental policies, even as it is expected to change dynamically in the context of a transition period. By incorporating the megaregion scale into the multiregional input and output framework, our main findings are as follows: (1) The YREB region transformed from a traditional river basin to a comprehensive consumption-oriented economic belt. The proportions of the YREB region’s embodied emissions in local and international linkages are decreasing, while the proportions of that in cross reach and interregional linkages are increasing; (2) The YREB region exacerbates the gap between the north and the south by importing carbon emissions from the carbon-intensive north and exporting to the south with low emission intensity; (3) The Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) effect held in 2002 in the cross reach linkage, while disappeared in 2012 due to changes in development and consumption patterns. Through structural decomposition analysis, this study detects driving factors of embodied emissions changes in multi linkages, and provides coordinating mitigation actions for the environmental governance of large river basins with comprehensive economic linkages.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jingli Zhao; Pengfei Wang; Yue Su;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In mining of inclined coal seams in Tangshan coal mine of Kailuan group, gateways on either end of a panel were both typically located along the floor and a gateway pillar between adjoining panels was left unmined between adjacent panels to ensure stability, thus forming a planar mining system. According to the practice, however, it turned out that this conventional mining system has long-standing problems, such as face end support problems, coal bumps, sliding of mining equipment downhill, spontaneous combustions, support problems in development entries, etc. In view of this situation and based on the No. Y294 panel, this paper analyzes an innovative mining technology in which the gateways on either end of a panel are located at different heights within the coal seam. For the adjacent panel, the gate development may be superposed on the development entry of the previous panel or may be offset with respect to it. Field data shows that the split-level layout of the longwall panel plays an effective role in control of overall stability of mining equipment in inclined coal seams. Physical modeling demonstrates that the new technology has many advantages in ground control. Under the condition without a pillar, development entry adjacent to the new panel is located in the de-stressed zone and stress concentration is significantly reduced with associated reduction in coal bumps, bursts and support problems which means less support and maintenance requirement and cost. Compared with the conventional rectangular pillar, the gateway pillar width in this new technology is effectively reduced when pillars have to be left unmined. Roof strata behavior and features are analyzed. Corresponding operations in the field are introduced in detail.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Erza Genatrika; Visda Nila Happy Laksari; Tjiptasurasa Tjiptasurasa;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels due to impaired insulin secretion or increased insulin resistance. The study was performed to investigate the blood glucose lowering effect of Musa acuminata Colla fruit peel (MACFP) ethanol extract in experimentally induced diabetic rats. 25 rats were divided into five groups, i.e negative control group (0.5% NaCMC), positive control group (glibenclamide), and treatment group of MACFP ethanol extract with dose 250, 375, and 500 mg/kg body weight (mg/kg BW). The blood sample was taken from the lateral vein of the tail, and then blood glucose level was observed on 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The results provide information that MACFP ethanol extract with dose 250, 375, and 500 mg/kg BW have the same effect with a positive control (glibenclamide) in lowering blood glucose level on diabetic rats (p>0,05). MACFP ethanol extract with dose 500 mg/kg BW had the highest percentage of decrease in blood glucose level (42,62%), followed by doses 375 mg/kg BW (37,26%) and 250 mg/kg BW (24,12%).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cheol Min Lee; Tae-Sung Kwon; Sung-Soo Kim; Go-Eun Park; Jong-Hwan Lim;
    Publisher: , National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA). Production and hosting by Elsevier.

    AbstractAbundance and diversity of arthropods were projected according to climate warming in South Korea. The taxa highly linked with temperature were selected for the projection. The values of abundance and richness were estimated using the mean values of abundance and richness in each temperature range. Temperature changes were based on the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 and RCP 8.5, and the abundance and richness during two periods (2011 -2015, 2056 -2065) were projected. From these projected results, change of other common taxa (> 1% occurrence) were qualitatively predicted (i.e., decrease or increase). The projections showed that 45 of a total of 73 taxa will increase, 6 will change a little and 24 will decrease: the number of taxa that were expected to increase was two times more than the number of taxa that were expected to decrease. However, the overall abundance and diversity of arthropods were expected to decline as the temperature rises.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lianglong Song; Xin Shi; Tong Guo; Wenqian Zheng;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    A novel self-centering prestressed concrete (SCPC) pier with external energy dissipators (EDs) has been recently proposed to minimize the structural damage and residual deformations, and enhance the corrosion-resistant capability. In the SCPC pier with external EDs, internal post-tensioned basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) tendons are used to provide the self-centering ability, and the energy dissipation is realized through the external aluminum bars. Previous cyclic load tests of 1/3-scaled specimens showed that the SCPC pier with external EDs had desirable self-centering and energy dissipation capacities. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is developed using the ANSYS software. The FE model can capture the complex behavior of the proposed pier, such as gap opening/closing at the pier-foundation interface, energy dissipation of EDs, and self-centering capacity. Good agreement is observed between the numerical and experimental results, demonstrating the accuracy of the developed FE model. This will enable the parametric studies on the seismic performance of the SCPC pier with external EDs in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheikh Adil Edrisi; Vishal Tripathi; Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil Abhilash;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    The successful utilization of marginal and degraded lands for biomass and bioenergy production depends upon various factors such as climatic conditions, the adaptive traits of the tree species and their growth rate and respective belowground responses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance of a bioenergy tree (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) grown in marginal and degraded land of the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India and to analyze the effect of D. sissoo plantations on soil quality improvement over the study years. For this, a soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on principal component analysis (PCA) to understand the effect of D. sissoo plantations on belowground responses. PCA results showed that among the studied soil variables, bulk density (BD), moisture content (MC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil urease activity (SUA) are the key variables critically influencing the growth of D. sissoo. The SQI was found in an increasing order with the growth period of D. sissoo. (i.e., from 0.419 during the first year to 0.579 in the fourth year). A strong correlation was also observed between the growth attributes (diameter at breast height, R2 = 0.870 0.01). Therefore, the developed SQI can be used as key indicator for monitoring the restoration potential of D. sissoo growing in marginal and degraded lands and also for adopting suitable interventions to further improve soil quality for multipurpose land restoration programs, thereby attaining land degradation neutrality and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. and plant height, R2 = 0.861) and the soil quality (p <

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abbas El-Zein; Tanvir Ahmed; Fahim N. Tonmoy;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Assessments of vulnerability to flooding can generate useful data for planners and policy makers. To the best of the authors knowledge, no flood-vulnerability study has combined geophysical modelling of floods with socio-economic assessments of vulnerability at finer municipal or household scale. In addition, the extent to which vulnerability assessments actually feed into flood adaptation policies remains largely unknown. A new flood vulnerability index, and associated methodology, is proposed, combining high-resolution hydrological-hydraulic modelling with built-environment and socio-economic indicators at the smallest spatial scale at which socio-economic data is available. The main advantage of the methodology is its ability to incorporate place-specific data, hence yielding more refined simulations of floods and the capacity to make projections into climate futures at local scale. The index is built and applied to the inter-city suburb of Marrickville in Sydney and used to assess the effects of future climate change on vulnerability mapping in the suburb. Finally, the results of the assessment are presented to, and discussed with, the local government authority responsible for implementing flood adaptation policies for Marrickville. Locally specific modelling of floods, combined with socio-economic and built-environment mapping, has yielded a rich set of information on flood vulnerability and significant variability within a single suburb. Flood duration is projected to increase by more than 100% under some climate change scenarios, as a result of reduced drainage caused by sea level rise. Feedback from municipal council has highlighted the potential usefulness of the knowledge generated by the assessment, especially for emergency services.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kanwaldeep Singh; Sukhpal Singh; Gurmel Singh;
    Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

    Six concrete mixtures were prepared with 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of flyash replacing the cement content and having constant water to cement ratio. The testing specimens were casted and their mechanical parameters were tested experimentally in accordance with the Indian standards. Results of mechanical parameters show their improvement with age of the specimens and results of radiation parameters show no significant effect of flyash substitution on mass attenuation coefficient.