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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Felix Ekardt;

    Despite its impressive quantity current climate protection law is not suited to solve the climate problem – neither on a global level through public international law nor in the EU or Germany. In Germany, not only the absolute emission levels raise concerns. Relative development, too, is much worse than is often assumed. German climate law is characterized by a variety of rules, although a substantial part (more or less) implements EU law. The – internationally often copied – German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) contains a fixed tariff for renewable electricity similar to a subsidy. In addition to that and to a number of energy efficiency rules, there are a number of legal rules that directly flank the regulatory, financial, and informational regulations on efficiency, sufficiency, and renewable energies. It remains true, however, that renewable energies and energy efficiency do not per se reduce greenhouse gas emissions or replace fossil fuels; in fact there may also be shifts in emissions and fuel transfers to other countries and/or increases in overall energy consumption. These rebound and shifting effects are a common major barrier to effective climate policy, including energy efficiency policy. A ­completely new cap and trade approach on the EU level (combined with border adjustments) might be the best way to solve these problems.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer Nature TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Verena Mattheiß;

    Whereas hydromorphological alterations represent one of the major ecological challenges for European river systems, very few economic instruments exist to mitigate their impacts. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act has established an innovative instrument for the hydropower sector. By guaranteeing higher remuneration for electricity produced by hydropower installations that comply with selected ecological requirements, it provides incentives for improving the morphological situation next to the plants.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Markus Fischer; Martin Schellschmidt;

    Wind Farms (WFs) that are nowadays connected to the German distribution or transmission system have to fulfill the technical requirements stated in the 2009 revision of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act. On the one hand these requirements specify more precisely the already existing connection conditions they are based on. On the other hand they give additional criteria especially regarding the dynamic behavior during under and over voltage conditions in the grid. ENERCON Wind Energy Converters (WECs) can fulfill these stringent demands due to their full-size converter design and the associated so-called FACTS Capabilities. Consequently, ENERCON was awarded the first type-certificate according to these German connection conditions in 2009. The present paper describes the Fault Ride Through (FRT) performance of ENERCON WECs that responds specifically to the above mentioned requirements. Furthermore, measurement examples that prove compliance with the connection conditions are shown and it is explained how the corresponding field tests are done.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vasilios Anatolitis; Marijke Welisch;

    Abstract The following analysis looks into auctions for renewable energy, specifically onshore wind power in Germany. Following an agent-based modeling approach, the two most commonly applied auction pricing rules are compared (uniform and pay-as-bid) and first conclusions on outcomes are drawn for future policy design. The auctions are modeled to closely represent the auction design foreseen in the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG, 2017) and replicate their parameters. The analysis draws on auction theory. For both pricing schemes, individually rational agents with independent valuation are assumed. As support for renewable electricity through auctions is to be established permanently and auction rounds will be held multi-annually, a further focus lies on agents learning over time by adapting their behavior to new information. The model results show that pay-as-bid exhibits lower prices and thus support costs than uniform pricing, whereas allocative efficiency suffers under pay-as-bid. Over time, one can observe a decline in the strike price, which is due to learning effects, whereas agents' profits increase in the course of the auctions. Furthermore, smaller actors will experience difficulties and agent diversity is likely to suffer in the long term, if this is not accounted for in other ways.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Energy Policyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy Policy
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Energy Policyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy Policy
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rogge, Karoline S; Schleich, Joachim;

    Empirical research on eco-innovation has produced a substantive body of literature on the relevance of regulation for stimulating such innovation. Much of this work on the role of policy for eco-innovation relies on econometric analyses of company survey data. In this regard, the eco-innovation module introduced in 2008/9 in the Community Innova-tion Survey serves as an important data source that has helped improve our under-standing of the role of environmental and innovation policy for eco-innovation in the Eu-ropean Union (EU). However, so far, this data source has provided only limited oppor-tunities to generate insights into the role of instrument design and instrument interaction for eco-innovation. In this chapter, we present a first attempt to measure such aspects in a company innovation survey based on the example of renewable energy innovation in Germany. In particular, we explore to what extent the design of the German Renewa-ble Energy Sources Act (and the interaction of its feed-in tariffs with the EU emissions trading system) correlates with innovation in renewable power generation technologies. We find instrument design features but not instrument type to be related to eco-innovation. In addition, our exploratory study provides evidence for an interaction effect between climate policy and renewables support policy. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for future research on the role of policy in eco-innovation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://sro.sussex.ac...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/epr...
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://sro.sussex.ac...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/epr...
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Johannes Többen;

    This paper concerns the net effects of promoting renewable energies on value added and disposable income in Germany, as well as their distribution among regions and income brackets. Since its entry into force, the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has stimulated tremendous investments in renewable energy capacities by guaranteeing investors a fixed price per kWh as well as a preferred feed into the grid over electricity from conventional sources. The policy measures are financed by a surcharge on electricity prices. In recent years, a controversy has arisen about potentially negative regional and social distribution effects. In this paper, multiregional price and quantity input-output models with endogenous heterogeneous households are used to trace the indirect impacts of the EEG on value added and disposable income through the complex network of regional value chains. Our findings suggest that the generation of electricity from renewable sources itself leads to small positive impacts on industries, but leads to a significant drain on household income and has regressive distributive effects. However, investment in new capacities may possibly transform these negative impacts into a positive direction for the majority of households.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ecological Economicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ecological Economics
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ecological Economicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ecological Economics
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xueqing Yang; Yang Liu; Daniela Thrän; Alberto Bezama; +1 Authors

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Energy, Sustainabili...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Energy, Sustainability and Society
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Energy, Sustainability and Society
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Energy, Sustainabili...arrow_drop_down
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      Energy, Sustainability and Society
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    Authors: C. Konrad; J. Strittmatter; A. Grunert; M. Brulé; +5 Authors

    In the German electric energy market, the share of regional and decentralized power generation based on renewables has become more and more signifi cant. The following study describes the initiative of the energy and utilities company ‘EnBW Energie Baden-Wurttemberg AG’ (EnBW) in Germany to investigate regional energy concepts based on agricultural biomass. The study focuses on two aspects: the development of more sustainable approaches for energy crops cultivation and the effi cient use of cogeneration heat produced by bioenergy-driven power plants in rural areas. For the development of concepts and tools, a study area including two counties in the South-West of Germany were chosen. This article focuses on the work done on the county of Ravensburg. Geographic information system (GIS) tools are used to collect data about current land use practices related to energy crops. Subsequently, the suitability of new and more sustainable energy crops for biogas production based on current production regimes is investigated by following a modeling approach. The approach followed includes the screening of new agricultural substrates as substitutes for maize, which is currently the dominant energy crop for biogas production in Germany, the modeling of new substrate mixtures, and the measurement of the methane potential of energy crop samples in a biogas laboratory. Bioenergy-driven power plants are usually implemented nearby high biomass potentials—in rural areas, where heat demand is scarce. Optimizing heat use in combined heat and power (CHP) generators is a major issue for the future of bioenergy. The effi cient utilization of residual heat is one of the targets of the upcoming update of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act in 2012. Therefore, the profi table operation of biogas plants increasingly depends on the level of heat use which can be reached. The possibilities for heat supply to potential consumers in rural areas have been investigated using a GIS methodology on an object-based level for residential and tertiary/industry sectors. Building age and type have been used as parameters to estimate the annual heat consumption. Scenarios illustrating a renovation rate of the investigated objects (buildings) have been calculated. For the purpose of verifi cation and calibration, measurements of the heat demand of more than 3,000 houses have been used. Furthermore, on the basis of existing biogas plants, a techno-economic comparison of heat networks with micro gas networks for the distribution of renewable energy to demand sites have been performed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jan-Henning Feil; Oliver Musshoff; Tobias Roeren-Wiemers;

    Abstract The farm level effects of policy reforms in agriculture have been discussed in the literature for a long time. However, empirical studies based on field data are not yet available. In this paper, the effects of the EU agricultural reforms in the last two decades and the introduction of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act on agricultural enterprises are investigated. For this, panel data of arable farms in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia for the period from 1984/85 to 2010/11 is analyzed by means of a fixed effects model. The results suggest that the farm income level, transmission effects on land rental markets and the farm income risk were significantly affected by the respective reforms.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Policy Mo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Policy Modeling
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Policy Mo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Policy Modeling
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Matthias Lang; Annette Lang;

    German renewable energy developments are frequently quoted around the world. Often the same circumstances are used as either good or bad examples, depending on individual points of view. This article sheds some light on the latest 2014 revision of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), commonly referred to as EEG 2014. The EEG 2014 represents a major shift from support that was mainly granted in the form of fixed-feed tariffs to mandatory direct marketing that is promoted by market premiums. Furthermore, the EEG 2014 lays down the foundation for the next step of promoting renewables, in which financial support will be established through competitive bidding.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Felix Ekardt;

    Despite its impressive quantity current climate protection law is not suited to solve the climate problem – neither on a global level through public international law nor in the EU or Germany. In Germany, not only the absolute emission levels raise concerns. Relative development, too, is much worse than is often assumed. German climate law is characterized by a variety of rules, although a substantial part (more or less) implements EU law. The – internationally often copied – German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) contains a fixed tariff for renewable electricity similar to a subsidy. In addition to that and to a number of energy efficiency rules, there are a number of legal rules that directly flank the regulatory, financial, and informational regulations on efficiency, sufficiency, and renewable energies. It remains true, however, that renewable energies and energy efficiency do not per se reduce greenhouse gas emissions or replace fossil fuels; in fact there may also be shifts in emissions and fuel transfers to other countries and/or increases in overall energy consumption. These rebound and shifting effects are a common major barrier to effective climate policy, including energy efficiency policy. A ­completely new cap and trade approach on the EU level (combined with border adjustments) might be the best way to solve these problems.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Verena Mattheiß;

    Whereas hydromorphological alterations represent one of the major ecological challenges for European river systems, very few economic instruments exist to mitigate their impacts. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act has established an innovative instrument for the hydropower sector. By guaranteeing higher remuneration for electricity produced by hydropower installations that comply with selected ecological requirements, it provides incentives for improving the morphological situation next to the plants.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Markus Fischer; Martin Schellschmidt;

    Wind Farms (WFs) that are nowadays connected to the German distribution or transmission system have to fulfill the technical requirements stated in the 2009 revision of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act. On the one hand these requirements specify more precisely the already existing connection conditions they are based on. On the other hand they give additional criteria especially regarding the dynamic behavior during under and over voltage conditions in the grid. ENERCON Wind Energy Converters (WECs) can fulfill these stringent demands due to their full-size converter design and the associated so-called FACTS Capabilities. Consequently, ENERCON was awarded the first type-certificate according to these German connection conditions in 2009. The present paper describes the Fault Ride Through (FRT) performance of ENERCON WECs that responds specifically to the above mentioned requirements. Furthermore, measurement examples that prove compliance with the connection conditions are shown and it is explained how the corresponding field tests are done.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vasilios Anatolitis; Marijke Welisch;

    Abstract The following analysis looks into auctions for renewable energy, specifically onshore wind power in Germany. Following an agent-based modeling approach, the two most commonly applied auction pricing rules are compared (uniform and pay-as-bid) and first conclusions on outcomes are drawn for future policy design. The auctions are modeled to closely represent the auction design foreseen in the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG, 2017) and replicate their parameters. The analysis draws on auction theory. For both pricing schemes, individually rational agents with independent valuation are assumed. As support for renewable electricity through auctions is to be established permanently and auction rounds will be held multi-annually, a further focus lies on agents learning over time by adapting their behavior to new information. The model results show that pay-as-bid exhibits lower prices and thus support costs than uniform pricing, whereas allocative efficiency suffers under pay-as-bid. Over time, one can observe a decline in the strike price, which is due to learning effects, whereas agents' profits increase in the course of the auctions. Furthermore, smaller actors will experience difficulties and agent diversity is likely to suffer in the long term, if this is not accounted for in other ways.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Energy Policyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy Policy
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Energy Policyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy Policy
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rogge, Karoline S; Schleich, Joachim;

    Empirical research on eco-innovation has produced a substantive body of literature on the relevance of regulation for stimulating such innovation. Much of this work on the role of policy for eco-innovation relies on econometric analyses of company survey data. In this regard, the eco-innovation module introduced in 2008/9 in the Community Innova-tion Survey serves as an important data source that has helped improve our under-standing of the role of environmental and innovation policy for eco-innovation in the Eu-ropean Union (EU). However, so far, this data source has provided only limited oppor-tunities to generate insights into the role of instrument design and instrument interaction for eco-innovation. In this chapter, we present a first attempt to measure such aspects in a company innovation survey based on the example of renewable energy innovation in Germany. In particular, we explore to what extent the design of the German Renewa-ble Energy Sources Act (and the interaction of its feed-in tariffs with the EU emissions trading system) correlates with innovation in renewable power generation technologies. We find instrument design features but not instrument type to be related to eco-innovation. In addition, our exploratory study provides evidence for an interaction effect between climate policy and renewables support policy. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for future research on the role of policy in eco-innovation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://sro.sussex.ac...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/