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  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2003
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Wilhelm Ripl;
    Publisher: The Royal Society

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kasey E. Barton; Casey Jones; Kyle F. Edwards; Aaron B. Shiels; Tiffany M. Knight;
    Publisher: Wiley
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    H. Meyer; M. Ellner;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The gallium atomic positions in the intermetallic compound CoGa 3 (Pearson Symbol tP 16, space group P 4 2 / mnm ) can be occupied by aluminium up to x A1 = 0.35. Lattice parameters were measured in the whole homogeneity range of CoAl x Ga 3 − x . Both the axial ratio c a and the unit cell volume decrease with increasing aluminium content. The extrapolated average atomic volume for the hypothetical phase ‘CoAl 3 with CoGa 3 structure’ is significantly higher than the average atomic volume of the observed non-defect cobalt/aluminium-containing structure occurring near the stoichiometry CoAl 3 oCo 4 Al 13 ( oP 102, oCo 4 Al 13 type). The measured data of the pseudoternary phase CoAl x Ga 3 − x are compared with data for the other gallium-containing representatives of the CoGa 3 structure type.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Hosny Ibrahim, Mahmoud;
    Country: Germany
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Peter Viebahn; Joachim Nitsch; Manfred Fischedick; Andrea Esken; Dietmar Schüwer; Nikolaus Supersberger; Ulrich Zuberbühler; Ottmar Edenhofer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Germany

    Abstract For the option of “carbon capture and storage”, an integrated assessment in the form of a life cycle analysis and a cost assessment combined with a systematic comparison with renewable energies regarding future conditions in the power plant market for the situation in Germany is done. The calculations along the whole process chain show that CCS technologies emit per kWh more than generally assumed in clean-coal concepts (total CO2 reduction by 72–90% and total greenhouse gas reduction by 65–79%) and considerable more if compared with renewable electricity. Nevertheless, CCS could lead to a significant absolute reduction of GHG-emissions within the electricity supply system. Furthermore, depending on the growth rates and the market development, renewables could develop faster and could be in the long term cheaper than CCS based plants. Especially, in Germany, CCS as a climate protection option is phasing a specific problem as a huge amount of fossil power plant has to be substituted in the next 15 years where CCS technologies might be not yet available. For a considerable contribution of CCS to climate protection, the energy structure in Germany requires the integration of capture ready plants into the current renewal programs. If CCS retrofit technologies could be applied at least from 2020, this would strongly decrease the expected CO2 emissions and would give a chance to reach the climate protection goal of minus 80% including the renewed fossil-fired power plants.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kahla, Franziska;
    Country: Germany

    Ziel:Der Artikel zielt darauf, ein strategisches Managementinstrument für Unternehmen mit hybriden Geschäftsmodellen, z.B. solchen mit Bürgerbeteiligung, einzuführen. Diese Geschäftsmodelle werden oft von Bürgerenergiegesellschaften genutzt, die sich in den letzten Jahren zu einer wesentlichen Säule des Energiesektors in Deutschland entwickelt haben. Das strategische Managementinstrument, das hier vorgeschlagen wird, könnte helfen, die meisten Ziele dieser Gesellschaften zu erreichen.Design/Methode/Ansatz:Im ersten Schritt wird eine Definition hybrider Geschäftsmodelle auf Basis eines Literaturüberblicks abgeleitet und die Bedeutung des strategischen Managements in Unternehmen mit Bürgerbeteiligung diskutiert. Im nächsten Schritt wird das neue Konstrukt eines Balanced-Scorecard (BSC)-Models auf Bürgerenergiegesellschaften angewendet. Dabei werden Befragungsdaten und vorherige Untersuchungen genutzt.Erkenntnisse:Unternehmen mit Bürgerbeteiligung unterscheiden sich von gewinnorientierten Unternehmen und Non-Profit-Organisationen; und sie werden beschrieben als neue hybride Geschäftsmodelle. Diese Studie zeigt mit einer Modifikation der BSC, dass soziale und Umweltziele genauso wichtig wie finanzielle Ziele für Unternehmen mit Bürgerbeteiligung sind, die einem Double-Bottom-Line-Ansatz folgen.Praktische Implikationen:Hybride Unternehmen sind wichtig für den deutschen Energiesektor, und strategische Managementinstrumente werden gebraucht, um deren fortdauernden Erfolg und ihre Wettbewerbsfähigkeit zu sichern. Die vorliegende Arbeit kann als Startpunkt für das Management dienen, das diese Instrumente im Unternehmen implementieren will.Originalität/Wert:Der Artikel adressiert eine Lücke in der strategischen Management-Literatur zu Unternehmen mit Bürgerbeteiligung. Die hier entwickelten Instrumente können für andere hybride Unternehmen modifiziert werden. PurposeThis paper aims to introduce strategic management tools for companies with hybrid business models, for example, those with citizen participation. These models are often used of citizen renewable energy companies that have become a main pillar of the energy sector in Germany in recent years. The strategic management tools proposed here could help to achieve most of their objectives.Design/methodology/approachIn the first step, a definition of hybrid businesses is derived by literature review, and the importance of strategic management in companies with citizen participation is discussed. In the next step, a new construct of a balanced scorecard (BSC) model is applied to citizen renewable energy companies by using survey data and previous studies.FindingsCompanies with citizen participation differ from profit-seeking companies and nonprofit organizations, and they are described by new hybrid business models. This study shows with a modification of the BSC that social or environmental aims are as important as financial ones to companies with citizen participation, which follow a double bottom line approach.Practical implicationsHybrid businesses are important for the German energy sector, and strategic management tools are needed for their continued success and competitiveness. This paper can be a starting point for the management who want to implement these tools.Originality/valueThe paper addresses a gap in the strategic management literature on companies with citizen participation. The tools developed here can be modified for other hybrid businesses.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Research . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anton Bondarev; Alfred Greiner;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany

    In this paper we develop an economic growth model that includes anthropogenic climate change. We include a publicly funded research sector that creates new technologies and simultaneously expands the productivities of existing technologies. The environment is affected by R&D activities both negatively, through the increase of output from productivity growth, as well as positively as new technologies are less harmful for the environment. We find that there may exist two different steadystates of the economy, depending on the amount of research spending: one with less new technologies being developed and the other with more technologies. Thus, a lock-in effect may arise that, however, can be overcome by raising R&D spending sufficiently such that the steady-state becomes unique. We derive the combinations of fiscal policy instruments for which that can be achieved and we study the implications for the economy and for the environment. In particular, the double dividend hypothesis may hold only under some specific conditions.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Matthew Malishev; Stephanie Kramer-Schadt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Animal movement, spanning all time and space scales in nature, is constrained by the individual's available energy to spend, creating a strong link between physiology and observed movement and distribution patterns. To progress, movement ecology needs an explicit focus on common mechanisms, such as energetics, linking behaviour to fitness consequences across scales, but simplified by process-based approaches, such as individual-based models (IBMs). We review the animal movement literature, from fine-scale patch foraging to large-scale geographic migration, focussing on IBMs incorporating individual energetics (hereafter termed eIBMs). The literature shows IBMs in movement ecology are mainly defined by the following four categories nested across different space and time scales: (1) fine-scale displacement, i.e. foraging and local habitat selection by animals under different resource availabilities, including (2) cognitive processes, such as risk perception, memory and learning, (3) home range occupancy and dispersal potential, and (4) migration and biogeographic distribution. Amongst eIBMs, a common issue emerges: individual traits like energetics are sometimes species- and problem-specific, leading to divergence in the way energetics are incorporated and aggregated in the models. Further, movement becomes more difficult to predict with increasing time and space scales and behaviour and biological complexity. Using this individual-level approach, we show 1) it is most effective in explaining fine-scale movement (foraging and competition) where the links between the animal and their habitat are immediate and absolute compared to coarser time and space scales, 2) coarser time and space scales present further challenges for the animal that require more careful interpretation of movement drivers, and 3) common, but more complex behaviours across scales, such as risk perception and memory, are better explained with richer ecological data that are well-integrated into movement models. We propose formulating individual energetics in a modelling framework as a next-gen extension to address the challenges of modelling movement across different scales, species, and constraints.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rafael Marcé; Biel Obrador; Lluís Gómez-Gener; Núria Catalán; Matthias Koschorreck; María Isabel Arce; Gabriel Singer; Daniel von Schiller;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Spain, Sweden, Sweden

    A large part of the world's inland waters, including streams, rivers, ponds, lakes and reservoirs is subject to occasional, recurrent or even permanent drying. Moreover, the occurrence and intensity of drying events are increasing in many areas of the world because of climate change, water abstraction, and land use alteration. Yet, information on the gaseous carbon (C) fluxes from dry inland waters is scarce, thus precluding a comprehensive assessment of C emissions including all, also intermittently dry, inland waters. Here, we review current knowledge on gaseous C fluxes from lotic (streams and rivers) and lentic (ponds, lakes, and reservoirs) inland waters during dry phases and the response to rewetting, considering controls and sources as well as implications of including 'dry' fluxes for local and global scale estimates. Moreover, knowledge gaps and research needs are discussed. Our conservative estimates indicate that adding emissions from dry inland waters to current global estimates of CO2 emissions from inland waters could result in an increase of 0.22 Pg C year(-1), or similar to 10% of total fluxes. We outline the necessary conceptual understanding to successfully include dry phases in a more complete picture of inland water C emissions and identify potential implications for global C cycle feedbacks.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Muñoz-Rojas; Haiyan Sun; Diana C. Iza; Jonas Weickert; Li Chen; Haiyan Wang; Lukas Schmidt-Mende; Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: EC | NOVOX (247276), NSF | Materials World Network: ... (1007969), EC | CAMBAR07 (219332)

    illtrafast, spatial atmosphe1ic atomic layer deposition, which does not involve vacuum steps and is compatible with roll-to-roll processing, is used to grow high quality Ti02 blocking layers for organic solar cells. Dense, uniform thin Ti02 films are grown at temperatures as low as 100 oc in only 37 s ( -20 nm/min growth rate). Incmporation of these films in P3HT-PCBM-based solar cells shows perfmmances comparable with cells made using Ti02 films deposited with much longer processing times and/or higher temperatures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.